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PAEDONOMUS (ircuSovo/Aos}., was a magistrate at Sparta, who had the general superintendence of the education of the boys. His office was considered very honourable, and he was alwaj^s chosen from the noblest citizens. He had to make a general inspection of the boys, and to punish severely all those who had been negligent or idle ; for which purpose uacmyotyopoi were assigned to him by Lycurgus. Those who were refractory he might bring before the Ephors. The more immediate inspection of the gymnastic exercises of the boys belonged to magistrates called /3i§icuot. [Bi-,diael] (Xen. Rep. Lac. ii. 2, iii. 10, iv. 6; Plut. Lye. 17 ; Hesj'chius, s. v.; Krause, Gymnastik und Agon, der Hellenen, pp. 254, 677.)
PAEDOTRFBAE (TrafiorpiSai*), [gymnasium, p. 581, b.]
PAEN ULA was a thick cloak, chiefly used by .the Romans in travelling instead of the toga, as a protection against the cold and rain. (Cic. pro Mil. 20 ; Quintil. vi. 3. § 66.) Hence we find the expression of scinderepaenulam (Cic. ad Ait. xiii. 33) used in the sense of greatly pressing a traveller to stay at one's house. The paenula was worn by women as well as by men in travelling. (Dig. 34. tit. 2. s. 23.) It appears to have been a long cloak without sleeves, and with only an opening for the head, as is shown in the following figure taken from Bartholini. If this is a real example of a paenula, it would seem that the dress was sewed in front about half way down, and was divided into two parts, which might be thrown back by the wearer so as to leave the arms comparatively free: it must have been put on over the head. This figure explains the expression of Cicero (pro Mil. L g.\ " paenula irretitus ;" and of the author of the Dialogus de Oratoribus (c. 39), " paenulis adstricti et velut inclusi."
Under the emperors the paenula was Worn in the city as a protection against the rain and cold (Juv. v. 79), but women were forbidden by Alexander Severus to wear it in the city. (Lamprid. Alex. Sei\ 27.) At one time, however, the paenula appears to have been commonly worn in the city instead of the toga, as we even find mention of orators wearing it when pleading causes (Dial, de prat. 39), but this fashion was probably of short duration.
The p.ienula was usually made of wool (Plin. H. N. viii. 48. s. 73), and particularly of that kind which was called Gausapa [gausapa] ( paenula, gausapina, Mart. xiv. 145). It was also sometimes made of leather ( paenula scortea^ Mart. xiv. 130). Seneca (Quaesf. Nat. iv. 6) speaks of " paenulae aut scorteae," but he appears only to use this expression because paenulae were usually made of wool. (Bartholini, de Paenula; Becker, Gallus, vol. ii. p. 93.)
PAGI, were fortified places, to which the country-people might retreat in ease of an hostile inroad, arid are said to have been instituted by Servius Tullms (Dionys. iv. 15) ; though the division of the country-people into pagi is as old as the time of Numa (Dion}Ts. ii. 76.) Each of the country-tribes was divided into a certain number of pagi; which name was given to the country adjoining the fortified village, as well as to the village itself. There was a magistrate at the head of each pagus, who kept a register of the names and of the property of all persons in the pagus, raised the taxes, and summoned the people, when necessary, to war. Each pagus had its own sacred rites, and an annual festival called Paganalia. (Dionys. iv. 15 ; Varro, de Ling. Lat. vi. 24, 26, ed. Mtiller ; Macrob. Saturn, i. 16 ; Ovid, Fast. i. 669.) The Pagani, or inhabitants of the pagi, had their regular meetings, at which they passed resolutions, many of which have come down to us. (Orelli, Inscr. n. 3793, 4083, 106, 202, 2177.) The division of the country-people into pagi continued to the latest times of the Roman empire, and we find frequent mention of the magistrates of the pagi under the names of Magistri, Praefecti or Prae« positi pagorum. (Orelli, Inscr. n. 121, 3795, 3796 J Cod. Theod. 2. tit. 30. s. 1 ; 8. tit. 15. s. 1; Wal-ter, Geschichte des Rom. Rechts, §§ 26, 164, 247* 366, 2d ed.)
The term Pagani is often used in opposition to milites, and is applied to all who were not soldiers, even though they did not live in the country. (Milites et pagani^ Plin. Ep. x. 18 ; Juv. xvi. 32; Suet. Aug. 27, G<db< 19 ; Dig. 11. tit. 4. s. 1 ; 48. tit. 19. s. 14, &c.). Hence we find Pagani or citizens applied as a term of reproach to soldiers who did not perform their duty (Tacit. Hist. iii. 24), in the same way as Julius Caesar addressed his rebellious soldiers on one occasion as Quirites. The Christian writers gave the name of Pagani to those persons who adhered to the old Roman religion, because the latter continued to be generally believed by the country-people, after Christianity became the prevailing religion of the inhabitants of the towns. (Isidorus, viii. 10 j Cod. Theod. 16. tit. 10 ; Cod. Just. 1. tit. 11.)
PALA (tttvov, (T/caTrcfo/T?, O7ca<£u0j', yita/ceAAa), a spade. (Cato de Re R'ztst. 10 ; Plin. //. N. xvii. 17. s. 27, xvii. 22. s. 35.) The spade was but little used in ancient husbandry,' the ground having been broken and turned over by the plough, and also by the use of large hoes and rakes. [LiGO ; ras-trum.] But in some cases a broad cutting edge was necessary for this purpose, as, for example, when the ground was full of the roots of rushes or other plants. (Plin. //. N". xviii. 8.) Also in gardening it was an indispensable instrument, and it was then made on the same piinciple as the