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PAEDAGOGUS.

The paean was always of a joyous nature, and its tune and sounds expressed hope and confidence. The sound of n? appears to have been invariably connected with it. ( Athen. xv. pp. 696, e.f. 701,b.c.) It was sung by several persons, one of whom pro­bably led the others, and the singers either marched onwards or sat together at table. Thus Achilles after the death of Hector calls upon his companions to return to the ships, singing a paean on account of the glory they had gained (II. xxiii. 391); and the Achaeans, after restoring Chryseis to her father, are represented as singing a paean to Apollo at the end of the sacrificial feast, in order to ap­pease his wrath. (77. i. 473.) From these pas­sages it is clear that the paean was a song of thanksgiving, when danger was passed, and also a hymn to propitiate the god. It was sung at the solemn festivals of Apollo, especially at the Hya-cinthia (els rot, 'YaKwOia eirl *rbi> iraiava, Xen. Hell. iv. 5. §11, Ages. ii. 17), and was also sung from very early times in. the temples of the god. (Horn. Hymn, ad Apoll. 514 ; Eurip. Ion, 1*25, &c.)

The paean was also sung as a battle song, both before an attack on the enemy and after the battle was finished. (Thucyd. i. 50, iv. 43, ii. 91, vii. 44 ; Xen. Anab. i. 8. § 17, &c.) This practice seems to have chiefly prevailed among the Dorians, but it was also common among the other Greek states. The origin of it is said to have arisen from the fact, that Apollo sang it after his victory over the Pythian dragon. The paean sung previous to an engage­ment was called by the Spartans iraiav e/xgarfynoy. (Plut. Lye. 22.) The Scholiast on Thucydides (i. 50) says, that the paean which was sung before the battle was sacred to Ares, and the one sung after to Apollo ; but there are strong reasons for believing that the paean as a battle-song was in later times not particularly connected with the worship of Apollo. (Bode, Gescli. der lyriscli. Dichtkunst der Hellenen, vol. i. pp. 9, 10, &c.) It is certain that the paean was in later times sung to the honour of other gods besides Apollo. Thus Xenophon relates that the Lacedaemonians on one occasion sang a paean to Poseidon, to propitiate him after an earthquake (Hell. iv. 7. § 4), and also that the Greek army in Asia sang a paean to Zeus. (Anab. iii. 2. § 9.)

In still later times, paeans were sung in honour of mortals. Thus Aratus sang paeans to the honour of the Macedonian Antigonus (Plut. Cleom. 16) ; a paean composed by Alexinus was sung at Delphi in honour of the Macedonian Craterus ; and the Rhodians celebrated Ptolemaeus L, king of Egypt, in the same manner. (Athen. xv. p. 696, e.f.) The Chalcidians, in Plutarch's time, still continued to celebrate in a paean the praises of their benefactor, Titus Flaminius. (Plut. Flam. 16.)

The practice of singing the paean at banquets, and especially at the end of the feast, when liba­tions were poured out to the gods, was very an­cient. It is mentioned by Alcman, who lived in the seventh century b. c. (Strab. x. p. 482.) The paean continued to be sung on such occasions till a late period. (Xen. Symp. ii. 1 ; Pint. Symp. vii. 8. §4.)

(Mliller, Hist, of Greek Literature, pp. 19, 20, Dorians, ii. 6. § 4 ; Bode, Gescli. der lyriscli., &c. vol. i. pp. 7—77.)

PAEDAGOGIA. [paedagogus.]

PAEDAGOGUS (TraiS^&ryo?), a tutor. The

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PAEDAGOGUS.

office of tutor in a Grecian family of rank and opulence (Plato, de Repub. i. p. 87, ed. Bekker, de Leg. vii. pp. 41, 42) was assigned to one of the most trustworthy of the slaves. The sons of his master were committed to his care on attaining their sixth or seventh year, their previous education having been conducted by females. They remained witli the tutor (magister} until they attained the age of puberty. (Ter. Andr. i. 1. 24.) His duty was rather to guard them from evil, both ph}rsical and moral, than to communicate instruction, to cultivate their minds, or to impart accomplishments. He went with them to and from the school or the gymnasium (Plato, Lysis, p. 118); he accom­panied them out of doors on all occasions ; he was responsible for their personal safety, and for their avoidance of bad company. (Bato, ap. Athen. vii. p. 279.) The formation of their morals by direct su­perintendence belonged to the TrcuSo^o/xoi as public officers, and their instruction in the various branches of learning, i. e. in grammar, music, and gymnas­tics, to the SiddffKaXoi or praeceptores, whom Plato (II. cc.}, Xenophon (de Lac. Rep. ii. 1, iii. 2), Plutarch (de Lib. Ed. 7), and Quintilian (Inst. Or. i. 1. 8,9) expressly distinguish from the paedagogi. These latter even carried the buuks and instru­ments which were requisite for their young masters in studying under the sophists and professors.

This account of the office is sufficient to explain why the TraLdaywyos so often appears on the Greek stage, both in traged}r, as in the Medea, Phoenissae, and Ion of Euripides, and in comedy, as in the Bacchides of Plautus. The condition of slavery accounts for the circumstance, that the tutor was often a Thracian (Plato, Alcib. i. p. 341, ed. Bekker), an Asiatic, as is indicated by such names as Lydus (Plaut. I. c.}, and sometimes an eunuch. (Herod, viii. 75 ; Corn. Nep. Themist. iv.' 3 ; Polyaen. i. 30. § 2.) Hence also we see why these persons spoke Greek with a foreign accent (v7rogap§api£ovT€s, Plato, Lysis, p. 145, ed. Bekker). On rare occasions, the tutor was admitted to the presence of the daughters, as when the slave, sus­taining this office in the royal palace at Thebes, accompanies Antigone while she surveys the be­sieging army from the tower. (Eurip. Phoen. 87— 210.)

Among the Romans the attendance of the tutor on girls as well as boys was much more frequent, as they were not confined at home according to the Grecian custom. (Val. Max. vi. 1. § 3.) As luxury advanced under the emperors, it was strik­ingly manifested in the dress and training of the beautiful young slaves who were destined to be­come paedagogi, or, .as they were also termed, paedagogia and pueri paedagogiani. (Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 12. s. 54; Sen. Epist. 124, De Vita beata^ 17 ; Tertull. Apol. 13.) Augustus assigned to them a separate place, near his own, at the public spectacles. (Sueton. Aug. 44.) Nero gave offence by causing free boys to be brought up in the deli­cate habits of paedagogi. (Sueton. Ner. 28.) Aftor this period numbers of them were attached to the imperial family for the sake of state and orna­ment, and not only is the modern word page a corruption of the ancient appellation, but it aptly expresses the nature of the service which the pae­dagogia at this later era afforded.

In palaces and other great houses the pages slept and lived in a separate apartment, which was also called paedar/o.gium. (Plin. Epist. vii. 27.) [J. Y."]

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