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On this page: Orbus – Orca – Orchesis – Ordinarius Servus – Ordo – Orgyia – Originarii – Ornatrix – Oroanon – Tallum


condition of eloquence to the political power which oratory conferred on the orator under the Republic, and to the party struggles and even the violence that are incident to such a state of society. The allusion to the effect produced by the establish­ment of the Imperial power is clear enough in the following words, which refer both to the Imperial and the Republican periods; " cum mixtis omnibus et moderatore uno carentibus, tantum quisque orator saperet, quantum erranti populo persuaderi poterat."

The memorials of Roman oratory are the ora­ tions of Cicero ; but they are only a small portion of the great mass of oratorical literature. The frag­ ments of the Roman orators from Appius Caecus and M. Porcius Cato to Q. Aurelius Symmaehus, have been collected by H. Meyer, ZUrich, 1 vol. 8vo. 2d ed. 1842. [G. L.J

ORBUS. [leges juliae, p. 692, b.]


ORCHESIS (opxwis). [saltatio.j ORCHESTRA. [theatrum.] ORCINUS LIBERTUS. [manumissio.] ORCINUS SENATOR. [senatus.] ORDINA'RIUS JUDEX, [judex peda-



ORDO is applied to any body of men> who form a distinct class in the community, either by pos­sessing distinct privileges, pursuing certain trades or professions, or in any other way. Thus Cicero ( Verr. ii. 6) speaks of the " Ordo aratorum, sive pecuariorum, sive mercatorum." In the same way the whole body of sacerdotes at Rome is spoken of as an ordo (Festus, s. v. Ordo Sacerdotuni), and separate ecclesiastical corporations are called by the same title. (Ordo collegii nostri, Orelli, Inscr. n. 2417 ; Ordo Seviralium, Id. n. 2229.) The liber-tini and scribae also formed separate ordines. (Suet. de Grammat. 18 ; Cic. Verr. i. 47, iii. 79.) The Senate and the Equites are also spoken of re­spectively as the Ordo Senatorius and Ordo Eques-tris [senatus ; equites] ; but this name is never applied to the Plebes, Accordingly, we find the expression " Uterque Ordo " used without any further explanation to designate the Senatorial and Equestrian ordines. (Suet. Aug. 15 ; Veil. Pat. ii. 100.) The Senatorial Ordo, as the highest, is sometimes distinguished as 4i amplissimus Ordo." (Plin. Ep. x. 3 ; Suet. Otho, 8, Vesp. 2.)

The senate in colonies and municipia was called Ordo Decurionum (Dig. 59. tit. 2. s. 2. § 7 ; Orelli, Inscr. n. 1167 ; colonia, p. 318, a), and sometimes simply Ordo (Tacit. Hist. ii. 52 ; Dig. 50. tit. 2. s. 2. § 3 ; Orelli, n. 3734), Ordo araplissimus (Cic. pro CaeL 2), or Ordo splendidissimus (Orelli, n. 1180, 1181).

The term Ordo is also applied to a company or troop of soldiers, and is used as equivalent to Centuria: thus centurions are sometimes called *' qui ordines duxerunt" (Cic. Phil. i. 8 ; Caes. Bell. Civ. i. 13)^ and the first centuries in a legion "primi ordines." (Caes. Bell. Gall. v. 28, 44.) Even the centurions of the first centuries are oc­casionally called "Primi Ordines." (Caes. Bell. Gall. Yi 30, vi. 7 ; Liv. xxx. 4 ; Gronov. ad loc.) [Cdirip. exekgitus, p. 501, b.]

OROANON. [hydraula ; machina.]

O'ilGIA. [hysteria. }

ORGYIA (opyvid), a Greek measure of length, derived from the human body, was the distance from extremity to extremity of the out-



stretched arms, whence the name, from bpsyta. (Xen. Mem. ii. 3. § 19 ; Pollux, ii. 158.) It was equal to 6 feet or to 4 cubits, and was 1-100th of the stadium. (Herod, ii. 149.) It may be ex­pressed nearly enough in English by the word fathom. (Comp. mensura and the Tables.) [P. S.] ORICHALCUM (opei'xaXKoj), a metallic com-pound, akin to copper and bronze, which was highly prized by the ancients. (See the passages in Forcellini, and the other Latin Lexicons.) The word has given rise to much doubt ; but the truth seems to be that it denotes brass, with which the ancients became acquainted by fusing zinc ore (cadmium, calamine) with copper, although they appear to have had scarcely any knowledge of zinc as a metal. They appear to have regarded orichalcmn as a sort of bronze. How little ac­quainted they were with its true formation is shown by the fact that, deceived by its colour, they supposed gold to be one of its constituents, and then perpetuated their error by a false ortho­graphy, auric/talcum. The true derivation is no doubt from vpos and xa^K6s, that is, mountain-bronze, so called probably because it was obtained by fusing copper with an ore (metal as found in the mountain), and not with an already reduced metal. (See especially Strabo, with Groskurd's note, and Beckman, as quoted in the article me-

TALLUM.) [P. S.]

ORIGINARII. [colonatus, p. 311, b.] ORNAME'NTA TRIUMPHA'LIA. [Tux-


ORNATRIX [CoMA, p. 330, b]. ORTHODO'RON. [mensura.] OSCHOPHO'RIA (6<rxo<t>6pta or oaffxoftpta),

an Attic festival, which according to some writers was celebrated in honour of Athena and Dionysus (Phot. p. 322, Bekkk),, and according to others in honour of Dionysus and Ariadne. (Plut. TJies. 23.) The time of its celebration is not mentioned by any ancient writer, but Corsini (Fast. Aft. ii. p. 354) supposes with great probability that it was held at the commencement of the Attic month Pyanepsion. It is said to have been instituted by Theseus. Its name is derived from sxtx^s^ ocrxos, or oo'X'n, a branch of vines with grapes, for it was a vintage festival, and on the day of its celebration two youths^ called 6<r%o<£opoi, whose parents were alive, and who were elected from among the noblest and wealthiest citizens (Schol. ad Nicand. Alexiph. 109), carriedi, in the disguise of women, branches of vines with fresh grapes from the temple of Dionysus in Athens, to the ancient temple of Athena Sciras in Phalerus. These youths were followed by a procession of persons who likewise carried vine-branches,, and a chorus sang h^ymns called oD&xotyopiKa /ieArj, which were accompanied by dances. (Athen. xiv. p. 681.) In the sacrifice which was offered on this occasion, women also took part; they were called denrvotyopoi, for they represented the mothers of the youths, carried the provisions (ctya /cat atria) for them, and related stories to them. During the sacrifice the staff of the herald was adorned with garlands, and when the libation was performed the spectators cried out e'AeAei", lob, lov. (Plut. Tkes. 22.) The ephebi taken from all the tribes had on this day a contest in racing from the city to the temple of Athena Sciras, during which they also carried the oarxn, and the victor received a cup filled with five dif­ferent things (TrevTdir\o3stirevTaTr\6a,

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