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ORACULUM.

16. Orach of Apollo in Delos., which was only consulted in summer. (Callim. Hymn, in Del. \. ; Serv. ad Viry. A en. iv. 14.3.)

17. Oracle of Apollo at Paiara, in Lycia, was only consulted in winter. The prophetess (Trpo-ILwris) spent a night in the temple to wait for the communications wjhich the god might make to her. (Herod, i. 182 ; Serv. ad Virg. Aen. iv. 143.)

18. Oracle of Apollo at Telmessus. The priests of this institution did not give their answers by inspiration, but occupied themselves chiefly with the interpretation of dreams, whence Herodotus (i. 78 ; compare Cic. de Div. 5. 41 ; Arrian, ii. 3) calls them e^rjjrjrai. But they also interpreted other marvellous occurrences. Near Telmessus there was another oracle of Apollo, where those who consulted it had to :loo:k into a well, which showed them in an image the .answer to their ques­tions. (Paus. vii. 21. § 6.)

19. Oracle of Apollo at Mallos^ in Cilicia. (Strab. xiv. p. 675, &c. ; Arrian, ii. 5.)

20. Oracle ofilie Sarpedoman Apo'llo, in Cilicia. (Biod. Exc. xxxviii. 12.)

21. Oracle of Apollo at Hybla^ in Cafia. (Athen, xv. p. 672.)

22. Oracle of Apollo at Hiera Koine, on the Maeander, a celebrated oracle which spoke in good verses. (Liv. xxxviiL 13 ; Steph. Byz. s. v.)

II. oracles of zeus.

1. Oracle of Zeus at Olympia. In this as in the other oracles of Zeus the god did not reveal him­self by inspiration, as Apollo did in almost all of his oracles, but he merely sent signs which men had to interpret. Those who came to consult the oracle of Olympia offered a victim, and the prisst gave his answers from the nature of the several parts of the victim, or from accidental circumstances accompanying the sacrifice. (Herod, viii. 134 ; Strab. viii. p. 353.) The prophets or interpreters here belonged to the family of the lamids. In early times the oracle was much resorted to, and

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Sophocles (Oed. Tyr. 900) mentions it along with the most celebrated oracles ; but in later times it was almost antirely neglected, probably because oracles from the inspection of victims might be obtained anywhere. The spot, where the oracles were given at Olympia, was before the altar of Zeus. (Pind. OL vi. 70.) It was especially those who intended to take part in the Olympic games that consulted the oracle about their success (Pind. Ol. viii. 2), but other subjects also were brought before it.

2. Oracle of Zeus at Dodo-no,. Here the oracle was given from sounds produced by the wind. The sanctuary was situated on an eminence. (Aeschyl. Prom. 830.) Although in fi barbarous country, the oracle was in close connection with Greece, and in the earliest times apparentty much more so than afterwards. (Horn. //. xvi. 233.) Zeus himself, as well as the Dod.onaeans, were reckoned among the Pelasgians, which is a proof of the ante-hellenic existence of the worship of Zeus in these parts, and perhaps of the oracle also. (Hesiod. and Ephor. ap. Strab. vii. p. 327, &c.) The oracle was given from lofty oaks covered with foliage (Horn. Od. xiv. 328, xix. 297), whence Aeschylus (Prom. 832 ; compare Soph. Track.] 170) mentions the speaking oaks of Dodona as great wonders. Beech-trees, however, are also men­tioned in connection with the Dodonaean oracle,

ORACULUM.

which, as Hesiod (Fragm. 3.9 ; Soph. TracJi. ]69 : Herod, ii. 55) said, dwelt in the stem of a, beech-tree. Hence we may infer that the oracle was not thought to dwell in any particular or single tree, but in a grove of oaks and beeches. The will of the god was made manifest by the rustling of the wind through the leaves of the trees, which aro therefore represented as eloquent tongues. In order to render the sounds produced by the winds more distinct, brazen vessels were suspended on the branches of the trees, which being moved by the wind came in contact with one another, and thus sounded till they were stopped. (Suid. s. v. A08c<;K/7; Philostrat. Imag. ii.) Another mode of producing the sounds was this : — There were two columns at Dodona, one of which bore a metnl basin, and the other a boy with a scourge in his hand ; the ends of the scourge consisted of little bones, and as they were moved b}r the wind they knocked against the metal basin on the other

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column. (Steph. Byz. s. v. AoS&vr]: Suid. s. v. Ao5a>j>cuoj/ %aA/ce?oy ; Strabo, Excerpt, ex lib. vii. vol. ii. p. 73, ed. Kramer.) According to other accounts oracles were aiso obtained at Dodona through pigeons, which sitting upon oak-trees pro­nounced the will of 'Zeus. (Dionys. Hal. i. 15.) The sounds were in early times interpreted by men, but afterwards, when the worship of Dione became connected with that of Zeus, by two or three old women who were called TreAeiaSes or TreAcucu, be­cause pigeons were said to have brought the com­mand to found the oracle. (Soph. Track. 169, with the Schol. ; Herod. I. c.; Paus. x. 12. § 5.) In the time of Herodotus (I. <?.) the names of the three prophetesses were Promeneia, Timarete and Nicandra. They were taken from certain Dodo­naean families, who traced their pedigree back to the mythical ages. 'There were, however, at all times priests called To;uovp»t (Strab. I.e.} connected with the oracle, who on certain occasions inter­preted' the sounds ; but how the functions were divided between them and the Pelaeae is not clear. In the historical times the oracle of Dodona had less influence than it appears to have had at an earlier period, but it was at all times inaccessible to bribes and refused to lend its assistance to the Doric interest. (Corn. Nep. Lysand. 3.) It was chiefly consulted by the neighbouring tribes, the Aetolians, Acarnanians, and Epirots (Paus. vii. 21. § 1 ; Herod, ix. 93), and by those who would not go to Delphi on account of its partiality for the Dorians. There appears to have been a very ancient connection between Dodona and the Boeo­tian Ismenion. (Strab. ix. p. 402 ; compare Muller, Orcliom. p. 378, 2d edit.)

The usual form in which the oracles were given at Dodona was in hexameters ; but some of the oracles yet remaining are in prose. In 219 b.c. the temple was destroyed by the Aetolians, and the sacred oaks were cut down (Polyb. iv. 67), but the oracle continued to exist and to be consulted, and does not seem to have become totally extinct until the third century of our aera. In the time of Strabo the Dodonaean prophetesses are expressly mentioned, though the oracle was already decaying like all the others. (Strab. vii. p. 329.)

Compare Cordes, De Oraculo Dodonaeo, Gro-ningen, 1826 ; J. Arneth, Ueber das Taubenorakel von Dodona, Wien, 1840 ; L. von Lassaulx, Das Pelasgisclie Orakel des Zeus zu Dodona, ein Bdtra-g zur ReligionspJdlosopliie, Wiirzburg, 1840,

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