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On this page: Op a – Opalia – Operis Novi Nuntiatio – Opinatores – Opistbodomus – Opsonium – Optma Spolia

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OPERIS NOVI NUNTIATIO.

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Many of the ancient writers did not consider history to begin till the Olympiad of Coroebus, and regarded as fabulous the events said to* have oc­curred in preceding times. (Censorinus, De Die Natal, c. 21 ; African, apud Euseb. Praep: x. 10. p. 487, d ; Clinton, Fast. Hell. vol. ii. Introd.. p. ii)

The old Olympiad aera appears only to have b2en used by writers, and especially by historians. It does not seem to have been ever adopted by any state in public documents. It is never found on any coins, and scarcely ever on inscrip­tions. There are onty two inscriptions published by Bockh in which it appears to be used. {Corp. Inscr. n. 2682, 2999.) A new Olympiad aera, however, came into use under the Roman emperors, which is found in inscriptions and was used in public documents. This aera begins in 01 227. 3. (a. d. 131), in which year Hadrian dedicated the Olympieion at Athens ; and accordingly we find OL227. 3. spoken of as the first Olympiad, Ql. 22tfi 3. (a. d. 135) as the second Olympiad, &c. (Bockh, Corp. Inscr. n. 342, 446, 1345.)

(Krause, Oh/mpia^ p. 60, &c. ; Wurm de Pond., &.c., § 94, &c.)

ONYX. [SCALPTURA.]

OP A. [metopa.]

OPALIA, a Roman festival in honour of Opis, which was celebrated on the 14th day before the Calends of January (Dec, 19th), being the third day of the Saturnalia, which was also originally celebrateol on the same clay, when only one day wns devoted to the latter festival. It was believed that Opis was the wife of Saturnus, and for this reason the festivals were celebrated at the same time. (Macrob. Sat. i. 12 ; Varr. de Ling. Lat. vi. 22, ed. Miiller ; Festus, s. v. Opalia.) The wor­shippers of Opis paid their vows sitting, and touehed the earth on purpose^ of which she was- the go-d-dess. (Macrob. /. c.)

OPERIS NOVI NUNTIATIO was a sum­mary remedy provided by the Edict against a per­son who was making an Opus Novum. An Opus Novura consisted in either adding something in the way of building (aedificando) or taking away some­thing so as to alter the appearance of a thing ( fades opens). The object of the nuntiatio was either the maintenance of a right (jus), or to pre­vent damage (damnum)^ or to protect the public interest (publicum jus). The owner of the pro-

OPSONIUM. 835

perty which was threatened with damage by the Opus Novum, or he who had an easement (servUus} in such property, had the Jus nuntiandi (Dig. 43. tit. 25). Nuntiatio consisted in protesting against and forbidding the progress of the Opus Novum, on the spot where the work was proceeding and in. the presence of the owner or of some person who was there present on his account. The Nuntiatio did not require any application to or interference on the part of the Praetor. It was a rule of law that the Nuntiaiio must take place before the work was completed: after it was completed, the Operis Novi Nuntiatio had no etfect, and redress could only be obtained by the Interdict Quod vi aut clam.

If the Opus Novum consisted in building on the complainant's ground, or inserting or causing any thing to project into his premises, it was better to apply at once to the praetor, or to prevent it per maimm, that is, as it is explained " jactu lapilli," which was a symbol of the use of force for self-protection.

The Edict declared that after a Nuntiatio no­thing should be done, until the Nuntiatio was de­clared illegal (iiuntiatio missa or remissa fiat) or a security (satisdatio de opere restituendo) was given. If the person to whom the notice was given per­severed, even if he had a right to do what he was doing ; yet as he was acting against the praetor's edict, he might be compelled to undo what he had done. By the Nuntiatio, the parties were brought within the jurisdiction of the praetor. In cases where there was danger from the interruption of the work, or the person who was making the Opus Novum denied the right of the nuntians, he was allowed to go on upon giving a cautio or security for demolition or restoration, in case the law was against him. When the cautio was given or the nuntians- waived it, the party was intitled to an interdictum prohibitorium for his protection in pro­secuting the work.

The effect of the nuntiatio ceased, when the cautio was given ; when the nuntians died ; when he alienated the property in respect of which he claimed the Jus nuntiandi ; or when the praetor permitted the work to go on (aperis novi nuntia- tionem .... remeisserit^ Lex Gall. Cis. x. ; Dig. 39. tit. L s. 22, ante wmissam nuntiationem ; Dig. 39. tit. 1 ; Mackeldeyy Lehrbuch, &c., 12th ed. §237, &O. [G. L.]

OPTMA SPOLIA. [spolia.]

OPINATORES were officers under the Ro, man emperors, who were sent into the provinces to obtain provisions for the army. The provisions had to be supplied to them within a year. The etym'olo.ny Of the name is uncertain. (Cod. 12. tit. 3«. s. 11 ; Cod. Theocl. 7. tit. 4. s.26 ; 11. tit. 7. s.16.)

OPISTBODOMUS. [templum.]

0PJSTOGRAPPJI. [LiBSR.]

OPSONIUM, op OBSO'NIUM (tyov, dim. tydpiov • o^Ty^a, Plut. Syntpos. Proh. iv. 1), de­noted every thing which was eaten with bread. Among the ancients loaves, at least preparations of corn in some form or other, constituted the principal substance of every meal. But together with this, which was the staff of their- life, they partook of numerous articles of diet called opsonia or pulmentaria (Cat. de Re Rust. 58 ; Hor. Sat. ii. 2. 20), designed also to give nutriment, but still more to add a relish to their food. Some of

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