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of Olympia celebrated at Athens, one of which was in existence iii the time of Pindar (Pind. Nem. ii. 23, &c. ; Schol. ad loc.\ who celebrates the ancestors of the Athenian Timodemus as conquerors in it, and perhaps much earlier (Schol. ad Tkuc. i. 126). It was celebrated to the honour of Zeus, in the spring between the great Dionysia and the Bendidia. (Bockh, Inser. pp. 53, 250—252.) The other Olympic festival at Athens was insti­tuted by Hadrian a. d. 131 ; from which time a new Olympic aera commenced. (Corsini, Fast. Ait. vol. ii. pp. 105, 110, &c. ; Spartian. Hadr. 13.) [olympias.]

Attalia in Pamphylia. This festival is only known to us by coins. (Rathgeber, t. c. p. 326.) Cyzicus. (Bockh, Inscr. n. 2810.) Cyrene. (Bockh, Escplicat. Find. p. 328.) Dium in Macedonia. These games were insti­tuted by Archelaus, and lasted nine days, corre­sponding to the number of the nine Muses. They were celebrated with great splendour by Philip II. and Alexander the Great. (Diodor. xvii. 16; Dion Chrysost. vol. i. p. 73, Keiske ; Suidas, 5. v.

JEpkesus. This festival appears by inscriptions, in which it is sometimes called 'ASptava 'O\vfA.irta iv 5E(/>€<ra.', to have been instituted by Hadrian. (Bockh, Inscr. n. 2810 ; compare n. 2987, 3000.)

Elis. Besides the great Olympic Games, there appear to have been smaller ones celebrated yearly. (Artccdot. Gr. ed. Siebenk. p. 95.)

Magnesia in Lydia. (Rathgeber, I. c. pp. 326,


Neapolis. (Corsini, Diss. Agon. iv. 14. p. 103.) Nicaea in Bithynia. (Eustath. ad Dionys. Perieg. pp. 172, 173, in Geogr. Min. ed. Bernhardy.)

Nicopolis in Epeirus. Augustus, after the con­quest of Antony, off Actium, founded Nicopolis, and instituted games to be celebrated every five years (wy&v irevTerripLKos) in commemoration of his victory. These games are sometimes called Olympic, but more, frequently bear the name of Actia. They were sacred to Apollo, and were under the care of the Lacedaemonians. (Strabo, vii. p. 325.) [ actia. J

Olympus in Thessaly, on the mountain of .that name. (Schol. ad A poll. Rhod. Argonaut. i. 599.)

Pergamos in Mysia. (Bockh, Inscr. n. 2810 ; Miomiet, ii. 610. n. 626.)

Side in Pamphylia. (Rathgeber, p. 129.) Smyrni. Pausanias (vi. 14. § 1) mentions an Agon of the Sniyrnaeans, which Corsini (Diss. Agon. i. 12. p. 20) supposes to be an Olympic festival. The Marmor Oxoniense expressly men­tions Olympia at Smyrna, and they also occur in inscriptions.. (Grater, Inscr. p. 314. 1 ; Bockh, Inscr. ad n. 1 720.)

Tarsus in Cilicia. This festival is only known to us by coins. (Krause, p. 228.)

Tegea in Arcadia. (Bockh, Jnscr. n. 1513. p. 700.)

Tiiessalonica in Macedonia. (Krause, p. 230.) Thyatira in Lydia. (Rathgeber, p. 328.) TraUes in Lydia, (Krause, p. 233.) Tyrus in Phoenicia. (Rathgeber, p. 328.) OLY'MPIAS ('OAi^tTaas), the most celebrated chronological aera among the Greeks, was the period of four years, which elapsed between each celebration of the Otympic Games. The Olympiads began to be reckoned from the victory of Corpebus in the foot-race, which happened in the year b. C.



776. (Pans. v. 8. § 3, viii. 26. § 3 ; Strab. viii. p. 355.) Timaeus of Sicily, however, who flourished B. c. 264, was the first writer who regularly ar­ranged events according to the conquerors in each Olympiad, with which aera he compared the years of the Attic Archons, the Spartan Ephors, and that of the Argive priestesses. (Polyb. xii. 12, § 1.) His practice of recording events by Olympiads was fol­lowed by Polybius, Diodorus Siculus, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, and sometimes by Pausanias, Aelian, Diogenes Laertius, Arrian, &c. It is twice adopted by Thucydides (iii. 8, v. 49) and Xenophon (Hell. i. 2. § 1, ii. 3. § 1). The names of the conquerors in the foot-raee were only used to designate the Olympiad, not the conquerors in the other contests. Thucydides (II. e«.),- however, designates two Olympiads by the name of the conquerors in the Pancratium ; but this appears only to have been done on account of the celebrity of these victors, both of wham conquered twice in the Pancratium. Other writers, however, adhere so strictly to the practice of designating the Olympiad only by the conqueror in the foot-race, that even when the same person had obtained the prize in other con­tests as well as in the foot-race, they only mention the latter. Thus Diodorus (xi. 70) and Pausanias (iv. 24. § 2) only record the conquest of Xenophon of Corinth in the foot-race, although he had also conquered at the same festival in the Pentathlum. The writers, who make use of the aeras of the Olympiads, usually give the number of the Olym­piad (the first corresponding to b. c. 776), and then the name of the conqueror in the foot-race. Some writers also speak of events as happening in the first, second, third, or fourth year, as the case may be, of a certain Olympiad ; but others do not give the separate years of each Olympiad. The rules for converting Olympiads into the year b. c., and vice versa, are given under chronologia, p. 281 ; but as this is troublesome, we subjoin for the use of the. student a list of the Olympiads with the years of the Christian aera corresponding to them from the beginning of the Olympiads to a. d. 301. To save space the separate years of each Olympiad, with the corresponding years B. c., are only given from the 47th to the 126th Olympiad, as this is the most important period of Grecian history ; in the other Olympiads the first year only is given. In consulting the following table it must be borne in mind that the Olympic Games were celebrated about Midsummer [olympia], and that the Attic year commenced at about the same time. If, therefore, an event happened in the second half of the Attic year, the year b. c. must be reduced by 1. Thus Socrates was put to death in the 1st year of the 95th Olympiad, which corresponds in the fol­lowing table to b. c. 400 ; but as his death hap­pened in Thargelion, the llth month of the Attic year, the year b. c. must be, reduced by 1, which gives us b. c. 399, the true date of his death.

Ii. C.


B. C.


B. C.



1. 1.


11. 1.


21. 1.


2. 1.


12. 1.


22. L


3. 1.


13, 1.


23. 1.


4. 1.


14, 1.


24. 3.


5. 1.


15. 1.


25. 1.


6. 1.


16. 1.


26. 1.


7. 1.


17. 1.


27. 1.


8. 1.


18. 1.


28. ].


9. 1.


19. 1.


29. 3.


10. 1.


20. 1. , 669.

10. L

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