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celebrated frequently in the loftiest strains of poetry. (Compare athletae, p. 167.)
Sometimes the victory was obtained without a contest, in which case it was said to be aicoviri. This happened either when the antagonist, who was assigned, neglected to come or came too late, or when an Athletes had obtained such celebrity by former conquests or possessed such strength and skill that no one dared to oppose him. (Paus. vi. 7. § 2.) When one state conferred a crown upon another state, a proclamation to this eft'ect was frequently made at the great national festivals of the Greeks. (Demosth. de Cor. p. 26*5.)
As persons from all parts of the Hellenic world were assembled together at the Olympic Games, it was the best opportunity which the artist and the writer possessed of making their works known. In fact, it answered to some extent the same purpose as the press does in modern times. Before the invention of printing, the reading of an author's works to as large an assembly as could be obtained, was one of the easiest and surest modes of publishing them ; and this was a favourite practice of the Greeks and Romans. Accordingly, we find many instances of literary works thus published at the Olympic festival. Herodotus is said to have read his history at this festival; but though there are some reasons for doubting the correctness of this statement, there are numerous other writers who thus published their works, as the sophist Hippias, Prodicus of Ceos, Anaximenes, the orator Lvsias,
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I)ion Chiysostom, &c. (Compare Lucian, Herod. c. 3, 4. vol. i. p. 834, Reitz.) It must be borne in mind that these recitations were not contests, and that they formed properly no part of the festival. In the same way painters and other artists exhibited their works at Olympia. (Lucian, I. c.)
The Olympic Games continued to be celebrated with much splendour under the Roman emperors, by many of whom great privileges were awarded to the conquerors. [athletae, p. 167.] In the sixteenth year of the reign of Theodosius, A. d. 394 .COL 293), the Olympic festival was for ever abolished ; but we have no account of the names of the victors from 01. 249.
Our limits do not allow us to enter into the question of the influence of the Oljnrnpic Games upon the national character ; but th3 reader will find some useful remarks on this subject in Thirl-wall's Hist, of Greece, vol. i. p. 390, &c.
There were many ancient works on the subject of the Olympic Games and the conquerors therein. .One of the chief sources from which the writers obtained their materials, must have been the registers of conquerors in the games, which were diligently preserved by the Eleans. f HAetW es tous 'OAVyUTTioj/i/ms ypdfA/Aara, Paus. iii. 21k § !„ v. 21. § 5, vi. 2. § 1 ; ra 'HAeiW 'ypdfjLfj.ara apxaia*, v. 4. § 4.) One of the most ancient works on this subject was by the Elean Hippias, a contemporary of Plato, and was entitled avaypacf)}] *Q\v}j.irioviKSiv. (Plut. Numa, 1.) Aristotle also appears to have written a work on the same subject. (Diog. Laert. v. 26.) There was a work by Timaeus of Sicily, entitled 'OAu^uTrtomicu fy XPOVIK^ ""pa|i5i«, and another by Eratosthenes (born b. c. 275) also called 'OXvfjLTTioviKai. (Diog. Lae'rt. viii. 51.) The Athenian Stesicleides is mentioned as the author of an ai'aypatyfy r&v apxovrwv kcl\ 'OAu/xTnoz/iKw*/ (Diog. Lae'rt. ii. 56), and Pliny (H.N. viii. 34) speaks of Agiiopas.as a writer of Olympionicae.
There were also many ancient works on the Greek festivals in general, in which the Olympic Games were of course treated of. Thus the work of Dicaearchus Hep! *A.yd>v<av (Diog. Lae'rt. v. 47), contained a division entitled 6 *O\vp,7rtn6s. (Athen. xiv. p. 620, d.)
One of the most important works on the Olym-pic Games was by Phlegon of Tralles, who lived in the reign of Hadrian ; it was entitled FUpl r$>v 5OAv,U7ri«j/ or 'OAu,U7ncuj> teal XpoviK&v ^vvayuyfi, was comprised in 16 books, and extended from the first Olympiad to 01. 229. We still possess two considerable fragments of it. The important work of Julius Africanus, 'EAAvjP'coi/ 'OAv^Tnafies airb ttjs TrpdSrTjs, &c., is preserved to us by Eusebius ; it comes down to 01. 249. Dexippus of Athens, in his xpovncf] iVropia, carried down the Olympic conquerors to 01. 262.
In modern works much useful information on the Olympic games is given in Corsini's Dissert. Agonisticae,, and in Bockh's and Dissen's editions of Pindar. See also Meier's article on the Olympic Games, and Rathgeber's articles on Olympia, Olympieion, and Olympischer Jupiter in Ersch and Gruber's Encydop'ddie ; Dissen. Uebor die Anord-nangder Olympisclien Spiele^ in his Kleine Schriftcn, p. 185 ; and Krause, Olympia oder Darstellung der grossen Olympisclien Spiele, Wien, 1838.
In course of time festivals were established in several Greek states in imitation of the one at Olympia., to which the same name was given. Some of these are only known to us by inscriptions and coins ; but others, as the Olympic festival at Antioch, obtained great celebrity. After these Olympic festivals had been established in several places, the great Olympic festival is sometimes designated in inscriptions by the addition of "in Pisa.," eV Tisiar). (Compare Bockh, Inscr. n. 247. pp. 361, 362. n. 1068. p. 564.) We subjoin from Krause an alphabetical list of these smaller Olympic festivals. They were celebrated at: —
Aegae in Macedonia. This festival was in existence in the time of Alexander the Great. (Arrian, Anab. i. 11.)
Alexandria. (Gruter, Inscr. p. cccxiv. n, 240.) In later times, the number of Alexandrian conquerors in the great Olympic Games was greater than from any other state.
Anazafbus in Cilicia. This festival was not introduced till a late period. (Eckhel, Doctr. Num. iii. p. 44.)
Antiocfi in Syria* This festival was celebrated at Daphne, a small place, 40 stadia from Antioch, where there was a large sacred grove watered by many fountains. The festival was originally called Daphnea, and was sacred to Apollo and Artemis (Strabo, xvi. p. 750 ; Athen. v. p. 194), but was called Olympia, after the inhabitants of Antioch had purchased from the Eleans, in a. d. 44, the privilege of celebrating Olympic games. It was not, however, regularly celebrated as an Olympic festival till the time of the emperor Commodus. It commenced on the first day of the month Hy-perberetaeus (October), with which the year of Antioch began. It was under the presidency of an Alytarches. The celebration of it was abolished by Justin, A. d. 521. The writings of Li-banius, and of Chrysostom, the Christian Father, who lived many years at Antioch, gave various particulars respecting this festival. . Athens. There ;were tw.o festivals of the name