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830

OLYMPIA.

offered by the Eleans and the Theori at the com­mencement or at the termination of the contests ; our limits do not allow us to enter into the contro­versy, but it appears most probable that certain sacrifices were offered by the Eleans as introductory to the games, but that the majority were not offered till the conclusion, when the flesh of the victims was required for the public banquets given to the victors.

The contests consisted of various trials of strength and skill, which were increased in number from time to time. There were in all twenty-four con­tests, eighteen in which men took part, and six in which boys engaged, though they were never all exhibited at one festival, since some were abolished almost immediately after their institution, and others after they had been in use only a short time. We subjoin a list of these from Pausanias (v. 8. § 2, 3, 9. §1,2; compare Plut. Symp. v. 2), with the date of the introduction of each, commencing from the Olympiad of Coroebus: — 1. The foot-race (Spp/xos), which was the only contest during the first 1 3 Olympiads. 2. The SrauAos1, or foot-race, in which the stadium was traversed twice, first intro­duced in 01. 14. 3. The 5o\ixos» a still longer foot­race than the S/auAos, introduced in Ol. 15.* For a more particular account of the <5iav\os and 5oAi-Xos see stadium. 4. Wrestling (vraAr?) [luct-a], and 5. The Pentathlum (TreyraflAo;/), which consisted of five exercises [pentathlum], both introduced in 01. 18. 6. Boxing (Truy^), introduced in 01. 23. [pugilatus.] 7. The chariot-race, with four full-grown horses (j'ttttcoj/ T6Aeicoi> 5p6/nos, a/tyi«), intro­duced in 01. 25. 8. The Pancratium (Tray/cpanai/) [pancratium], and 9. The horse-race (imros /ceA7?s), both introduced in 01. 33. 10 and 11. The foot-race and wrestling for boys, both intro­duced in 01. 37. 12. The Pentathlum for boys, introduced in 01. 38, but immediately afterwards abolished. 13. Boxing for boys, introduced in OL 41. 14. The foot-race, in which men ran with the equipments of heavy-armed soldiers (twj/ o-k\itwv Sp6/j,os}9 introduced in Ol. 05, on account of its training men for actual service in war. 15. The chariot- race with mules ( aTTTjj/??), introduced in Ol. 70 ; and 16. The horse-race with mares (KdhTrrj\ described by Pausanias (v. 9. § 1, 2), introduced in 01. 71, both of which were abolished in Ol. 84.

17. The chariot-race with two full-grown horses ('linrcw TeAeiwi/ owwpt's), introduced in Ol. 93,

18. 19. The contest of heralds (icfipwces) and trumpeters ((ra\TnyKTai\ introduced in 01. 9@. (African, ap. Euseb. XPoz/« *• 'EAA. oA. p. 41 ; Pans. v. 22. § 1 ; compare Cic. ad Fam. v. 12.) 20. The chariot-race with four foals (TrcoAwr ap/u,a<nv\ introduced in 01.99. 21. The chariot-race with two foals (tt&kwv ffvvospis)^ introduced in 01. 128. 22. The horse-race with foals (ttm\os , introduced in 01. 131. 23. The Pancra-

* Some words appear to have dropped out of the passage of Pausanias. In every other case he mentions the name of the first conqueror in each new contest, but never the name of the conqueror in the same contest in the following 01. In this passage, however, after giving the name of the first eonqueror in the Diaulos, he adds, rrj 5e z£ys Aicav9os. There can be little doubt that this must be the name of the conqueror in the Dolichos ; which is also expressly stated by Afrioanus (apud Eus. XPOV *• <E^. oA. p. 39)*

OLYMPIA.

tium for boys, introduced in 01. 145. 24. There was also a horse-race (i'ttttos /teA^s) in which boys rode (Paus.vi. 2. § 4, 12. § 1, 13. § 6), but we do not know the time of its introduction. Of these contests, the greater number were in existence in the heroic age, but the following were introduced for the first time by the Eleans:—all the contests in which boys took part, the foot-race of Ploplites, the races in which foals were employed, the chariot-race in which mules were used, and the horse-race with mares (wctATr?]). The contests of heralds and trumpeters were also probably introduced after the heroic age.

Pausanias (v. 9. § 3) says that up to the 77th Olympiad, all the contests took place in one day ; but as it was found impossible in that Olympiad to finish them all in so short a time, a new arrange­ment was made. The number of days in the whole festival, which were henceforth devoted to the games, and the order in which they were cele­brated, has been a subject of much dispute among modern writers, and in many particulars can be only matter of conjecture. The following arrange­ment is proposed by Krause (Olympic^ p. 106) : — On the first day, the initiatory sacrifices were offered, and all the competitors classed and arranged by the judges. On the same day, the contest between the trumpeters took place ; and to this succeeded on the same day and the next the contests of the boys, somewhat in the following order: — the Foot-Race, Wrestling, Boxing, the Pentathlum, the Pancratium, and lastly, the Horse-Raee. On the third day, which appears to have been the principal one, the contests of the men took place, somewhat in the following order:—the simple Foot-Race, the Diaulos, the Dolichos, Wrestling, Boxing, the Pancratium, and the Race of Hoplites. On the fourth day the Pentathlum, either before or after the Chariot and Borse-Rases-, which were celebrated on this day. On the same day or on the fifth, the contests of the Heralds may have taken place. The fifth cby appeals to have been devoted to processions and sacrifices-, and to the banquets given by the Eleans to the conquerors in the Games.

The judges in the Olympic Games, called Hel-la'nodicae ('EAAa^oSi/cat), were appointed by the Eleans, who had the regulation of the whole festi­val. It appears to have been originally under the superintendence of Pisa, in the neighbourhood of which Olympia was situated, and accordingly we find in the ancient legends the names of Qenomaais, Pelops, and Augeas as presidents of the Games. But after the conquest of Peloponnesus by the Do­rians on the return of the Heradida'e, the AetSoTians, who had been of great assistance to the Heraclidae^ settled in Elis, and from this time the Aetolian Eleans obtained the regulation of the festival, and appointed the presiding officers. (Strabo, viii. pp. 357, 358.) Pisa, however, did not quietly re­linquish its claim to the superintendence of the festival, and it is not improbable that at first it had an equal share with the Eleans in its administra­tion. The Eleans themselves only reckoned three festivals in which they had not had the presidency, namely, the 8th, in which Pheidon and the Piseana obtained it; the 34th, which was celebrated under/ the superintendence of Pantaleon, king of Pisa j and the 104th, celebrated under the superintend­ence of the Piseans and Arcadians. These Olynl* piads the Eleans called ayoAv^7rta<Jes, as

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