Scanned text contains errors.
sloping all round, and inclined from one summit "(Peric. 13). He also says that, in its internal arrangement, the building had many seats and many pillars. • From a few other passages, and from the scanty remains of such edifices, we may conclude further that, the Odeum had an orchestra for the chorus and a stage for the musicians (of less depth than the stage of the theatre), behind which were rooms, which were probably used for keeping the dresses and vessels, and ornaments required for religious processions. Of course the Odeum required no shifting scenes ; but the wall at the back of the stage seems to have been permanently decorated with paintings. For example, Vitruvius tells us (vii. 5. § 5), that, in the small theatre at Tralles (which was doubtless an Odeum), Apaturius of Alabanda painted the scena with a composition so fantastic that he was compelled to remove it, and to correct it according to the truth of natural objects. Among the paintings in the Odeurn at Smyrna was a Grace, ascribed to Apelles. (Paus. ix. 35. § 6.) The Odea of later times were richly decorated. That of He-rodes Atticus had its roof of beams of cedar adorned with carvings, and contained numerous works of art. (Philost. ii. 1. p. 551.)
The earliest building of this kind was that already mentioned as erected by Pericles at Athens, for the purpose, according to Plutarch (/. c.) of celebrating the musical contests at the Panathe-naea. It lay on the left hand to persons coming out of the great theatre, and therefore at the foot of the south-eastern part of the Acropolis. (Vitruv. v. 9.) ^Its proximity to the theatre suggested some of the uses made of it, namely, as a refuge for the audience when driven out of the theatre by rain, and also as a place in which, the chorus could be prepared. (Vitruv. L c.} It was burnt when Athens was taken by Sulla, b. c. 85, and was restored by Ariobarzanes II. king of Cappadocia ; wiio employed C. and M. Stallius and Menalip-pus as the architects of the work. Ariobarzanes reigned from b.c. 63 to about b.c. 51.° (Vitruv. I c. ; Paus. i. 20. § 4 ; Appian. Bell. Mithv. 38 ; Bockh, Corp. Inser. vol. i. No. 357.) The building is now entirely destroyed.
This was not the only Odeum at Athens in the time of Hadrian and the Antonines. Pausanias, who in the passage referred to, does not apply the name of Odeum to the building, speaks of an Odeum at Athens in two other passages (i. 8. § 6, 14. § 1), from a close examination of which it appears more than doubtful whether this Odeum is the same as the former. Stieglitz (p. 228, foil.) identifies it with the Pnyx, which he supposes to have been fitted up as an Odeum, while that of Pericles was in ruins. It is remarkable that Pau-sanias nowhere mentions the Pnyx, unless this Odeum be the same as it.
Another Odeum was built at Athens by He-rodes Atticus, and was the most magnificent edifice of the sort in the whole empire. It stood, as compared with the Odeum of Pericles, on the opposite side of the great theatre, under the southwestern part of the Acropolis ; where large ruins of it are still seen. The length of its largest diameter was 248 feet, and it is calculated to have furnished accommodation for about 8000 persons. (Leake, Topogr. of Athens, p. 61.) This building was erected after Pausanias wrote his first book, and "before he wrote his seventh. (Paus. vii. 20. § 3.)
The other principal Odea were that of Corinth, also built by Herodes (Paus. ii. 3. § 6 ; Philost. L c.) ; that of Patrae, which was next in magnificence to that of Herodes at Athens, and contained. among other works of art, a celebrated statue of Apollo (Paus. vii. 20. § 6) ; those of Smyrna and Tralles already mentioned ; that of Messene, 1 12 feet long, and 93 feet in its inner diameter ; that of Nieopolis, with an inner diameter equal to the last, but with an outer diameter of 193 feet: there are also ruins of Odea at Laodicea, Ephesus, Ane-murium, and other places in Asia Minor. (See Chandler, Pococke, Beaufort's Caramania, Leake, and other topographers.)
The first Odeum, properly so called, at Rome, was built by Domitian (Suet. Dom. 5 ; Eutrop. viii. 15), and the second by Trajan. (Amm. Marc. xvi. 10.) There are ruins of such buildings in the villa of Hadrian at Tivoli, at Pompeii, and at Catana.
Asa general fact, the Odea were less strictly reserved for their special use than the theatres. Some of the extra uses, to which the Odeum of Pericles was applied, have been already mentioned. It was also used sometimes as a court of justice (Aristoph. Vesp. 1104, c. Scliol., comp. Pollux, viii. 6) ; and philosophical disputations were held in the Odea. (Pint, de Eoosil. p. 604.) Further details will be found in the following woirks. (Martini, Ueber die Odeen ; Stieglitz, Aveh'&oL d. Baukunst, vol. ii. sect. 3 ; Hirt, Lelire d. Gebaude, pp. Ill — 113 ; Rose, liber die Odeen in Atlien, Rom, u. Kartliago, Soest, 1831, 4to ; Mtiller, Arch. d. Kunst, § 289 ; Klausen, in Ersch and Gruber's Encyklopadie ; Baumstark, in the Real Emyclop. d. class. Alterthim.) [P. S.]
OECUS. [Dc-Mus, p, 428, b.]
OENOPHORUM (ol^opov}, a basket, ^ or other contrivance for carrying bottles of wine ; a wine-basket. This was sometimes used by those who took their own wine with them in travelling in order to avoid the necessity of purchasing it on the road. (Hor. Sal i. 6. 109 ; Juv. Sat. vii. 11 ; Pers. Sat. v. 140 ; Mart. vi. 88.) A slave, called the wine-bearer (oenopliorus, Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 8. s. 19), carried it probably on his back. [J. Y.]
OFFICIATES. [exercitus, p. 508, b.]
OFFICJUM ADMISSION UM. [admission a li s.]
OFKIAS DIKE (ofoi'a? SM), an action to recover a house, in which (as in any other action where property was the subject of litigation) the dicasts decided (SteSt/cacre*/) to which of the parties the house belonged, and adjudged it to him (eVe- Si'/ccure;/). Nothing further being requisite, the suit was an dr/^Tos ayav. Certain speeches of Lysias, Isaeus, and Hyperides, which are now lost, were upon this subject. The QiKias Six?) was only to lecover the house itself ; the by-gone rents, or mesne profits, were recoverable in an action called evoutiov SiK-n, [See enoikiou pike,] (Meier, AU. Proc. p. 492.) [C. R. K.]
OLEA, OLI'VA (e'Acua) ; O'LEUM, OLF-VUM (eAa/oz/) ; OLE'TUM, OLIVE'TUM
The importance of the olive was recognised from the most remote period of antiquity, in all civilised countries where the temperature admitted of its cultivation ; and it was widely adopted as
3 g 4