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On this page: Ocrea – Octastylos – Octavae – October Equus – Octophoron – Odeum



citizens, who were thus tempted to adopt as one of their ordinary avocations, that which the}7 would otherwise have left in more suitable hands. (Polyb. vi. 4 ; Plut. de Monarch. &c., c. 3 ; Thirl wall, Hist, of Greece^ c. x. vol. i. p. 410.) [C. P. M.]

OCREA (/cyrjjius), a greave, a leggin. A pair of greaves (wz^juTSes) was one of the six articles of armour which formed the complete equipment of a Greek or Etruscan warrior [arma], and likewise of a Roman soldier as fixed by Servius Tullius. (Liv. i. 43.) They were made of bronze (Alcaeus, Frag.i. ed. Matthiae), of brass (Hes. Scut. 122), of tin (Horn. //. xviii. 612. xxi. 592), or of silver and gold (Virg.Aen. vii. 634, viii. 624, xi. 488), with a lining probably of leather, felt, or cloth. Another method of fitting them to the leg so as not to hurt it, was by the interposition of that kind of sponge which was also used for the lining of helmets [galea], and which Aristotle describes as being remarkable for thinness, density, and firm­ness. The greaves, lined with these materials, as they were fitted with great exactness to the leg, probably required, in many cases, no other fasten­ing than their own elasticity. Often, nevertheless, they were further secured by two straps, as may be seen in the woodcut at p. 135. Their form and appearance will be best understood from the ac­companying woodcut. The upper figure is that of a fallen warrior represented among the sculptures, now at Munich, belonging to the temple in Aegina. In consequence of the bending of the knees, the greaves are seen to project a little above them. This statue also shows very distinctly the ankle-rings (eVtfr^upta), which were used to fasten the greaves immediately above the feet. The lower portion of the same woodcut represents the interior view of a bronze shield and a pair of bronze greaves, which were found by Signer Campanari in the

tomb of an Etruscan warrior, and which are now preserved in the British Museum. These greaves are made right and left.

That the Greeks took great delight in handsome and convenient greaves may be inferred from the epithet eu/cnjjtuSes, as used by Homer, and from


his minuteness in describing some of their parts,' especially the ankle-rings, which were sometimes of silver. (Horn.//, iii. 331, xi. 18.) The modern Greeks and Albanians wear greaves, in form re­sembling those of their ancestors, but made of softer materials, such as velvet, ornamented with gold, and fastened with hooks and eyes.

Among the Romans, greaves made of bronze, and richly embossed, were worn by the gladiators. Some such have been found at Pompeii. [See woodcut, p. 576. j It appears that in the time of the emperors, greaves were not entirely laid aside as part of the armour of the soldiers. (Lamprid. AL Sever. 40.) At an earlier period, the heavy- armed wore a single greave on the right leg. (Veget. de Re Mil. i. 20.) Leggins of ox-hide or strong leather, probably of the form already de­ scribed and designated by the same names both in Greek and Latin, were worn by agricultural la­ bourers (Horn. Od. xxiv. 228 ; Plin. //. N. xix. 7 ; Pallad. de Re Rust. i. 43) and by huntsmen. (II or. Sat. ii. 3. 234.) [J. Y.J

OCTASTYLOS. [templum.]

OCTAVAE. [vectigalia.]

OCTOBER EQUUS. [palii.ia.]

OCTOPHORON. [lectica.]

ODEUM wSeToj/, a species of public build-

ing, which was first erected during the nourishing epoch of Greek art in the fifth century b.c., for contests in vocal and instrumental music (r ottos lv (S ol patycao'ol Kal ol KtOapcpftol yycwi&vTo, Hesych. s. «., comp. Suid. s. v.). In its gen ral form and arrangements it was very similar to the theatre ; and it is sometimes called Searpois. * (Pans. i. 8, ii. 3 ; Philostr. Vit. Soph. ii. 1. p. 549.) There were, however, some characteristic differences : the Odeum was much smaller than the theatre ; and it was roofed over, in order to retain the sound. (Vitruv. v. 9.) The com­paratively small size of the Odeum is easily ac­counted for, not only because the space required in the theatre for the evolutions of the Chorus was not wanted here ; but also because it appears to have been originally designed chiefly for musical rehearsals, in subordination to the great choral performances in the theatre, and consequently a much smaller space was required for the audience. Unfortunately we have no detailed description of this class of buildings. Vitruvius (/. c.) makes a passing mention of the Odeum of Pericles, but states no particulars respecting its construction, ex­cept that it was adorned with stone pillars, and roofed over with the masts and yards of the cap­tured Persian ships, a statement which has led some writers into the mistake of referring the building to the time of Themistocles. From the statement of Pausanias (i. 20. § 4) that, when the Odeum was rebuilt, after its burning in the cap­ture of Athens by Sulla, it was made of a form which was said to be in imitation of the tent of Xerxes, it may perhaps be inferred that the ori­ginal building was actually covered with that tent. At all events, this statement proves that the roof must have been conical. Accordingly Plutarch, who states that the original building^ was an imitation of the king's tent, describes its roof as

* See, respecting the precise meaning of the words, the note on p. 83, a.

"t1 Perhaps he confounded it with the one which was standing in his time.

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