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period, they were called eacceptores (Dig. 19. tit. 2. s. 19. § 9). These short-hand writers were also employed on some occasions to take down a person's will (Dig. 29. tit. 1. s. 40).
This is the" chief information we have respecting the use of stenography by contcmporar}^ writers. But Isidorus, who lived in the seventh century of the Christian era, gives a more detailed account of the history of the art (One/, i. 21. p. 836, ed. Gothofred). He ascribes the invention of the art to Ennius (?), who he says invented 1100 marks (notae) ; but the first person who practised it at Rome he states to have been Tiro, the freedman of Cicero, who, however, according to Isidore's account, used only notae for prepositions. Isidore then goes on to say that additional notae were invented by Tertius Persannius, Phi-largius, and Aquila, a freedman of Maecenas, till at length Seneca reduced the whole to a regular system, and increased the number of notae to 5000. What truth there may be in this account, it is impossible to say ; but the view which it gives of the gradual improvement of the system by successive persons is, from the nature of the case, most probable.
The system of short hand called Notae Tiro-nianae is explained in a work printed by Gruter in his Thesaurus Inscriptionum. This work is ascribed in the manuscripts to Tiro and Seneca, but contains many words, which were only used at a much later age. It appears from this work, that the Notae Tironianae were very different from our system of stenograph}7, and were simple abbicviations of the words, such as were used, only to a smaller extent, in ordinary writing. We likewise have some manuscripts written in Notae Tironianae, of which an account is given in the work of Kopp quoted below (Carpentier, Al~ phabetum Tironianum, Paris, 1747 ; Kopp, Pa~ laeograpkica Critica, 1817, vol. i. ; Becker, Qallus^ vol.'i. pp. 197, 198).
NOTARII, short-hand writers, were generally slaves or freedrnen, and are spoken of under nota. They were likewise called Actuarii. They were also employed by the emperors (Lamprid. Alex. Sev. 28, Aurel. 36 ; Trebell. Claud. 14), and in coarse of time the title of Notarii was exclusively applied to the private secretaries of the emperors, who, of course, were no longer elaves, but persons of high rank. The short-hand writers were now called exce-ptores^ as is remarked under nota. On the reorganisation of the empire by Constantine, the Notarii were constituted into a kind of imperial chancery, who, in addition to their regular duties, were frequently employed by the emperor on important public missions. The first of them in rank was called Primicerius Nota-riorum, and the second, Secundicerius Notariorum. Others were called tribuni et notarii^ and another class domestici et notarii, who probably acted specially as private secretaries of the. emperors. Others again who served under the Praefecti Praetorii, were called Notarii Praetoriam (Cod. Theod. 6. tit. 10 ; Cassiod. Var. vi. 16 ; Walter, Geschichte des RomiscJien Rechts, § 345, 2d ed.)
NOVELLAE or NOVELLAE CONSTITU-TIO'NES form a part of the Corpus Juris. Most of them were published in Greek, and their Greek
NOXALIS ACTIO. &07
title is AvToicparopos 3Iov<rnviavov Avyovo-rov Neapcu Atara^is. Some of them Avere published in Latin and some in both languages. The first of these Novellae of Justinian belongs to the year a. d. 535 (Nov. 1), and the latest to the year a.d. 565 (Nov. 137); but most of them were published between the years 535 and 539. These Constitu-tiones were published after the completion of the second edition of the Code, for the purpose of supplying what was deficient in that work. Indeed it appears that on the completion of his second edition of the Code the Emperor designed to form any new constitutions, which he might publish, into a body by themselves so as to render a third revision of the Code unnecessary, and that he contemplated giving to this body of law the name of Novellae Constitutiones. (Const. Cordi. s. 4.) It does not however appear that any official compilation of these new constitutions appeared in the lifetime of Justinian. The Greek text of the Novellae, as we now have them, consists of 165 . Novellae at the least, or 168 as some make it, of which 159 belong to Justinian, and the rest to Justin the Second and to Tiberius: they are generally divided into chapters.
A large part of these Novellae relate to the administration of the state and to ecclesiastical affairs ; but a considerable number relate to Privatum Jus, and they modified or altered many rules of law.
There is a Latin Epitome of these Novellae by Julian, a teacher of law at Constantinople, which contains 125 Novellae. The Epitome was probably made in the time of Justinian, and the author was probably Antecessor at Constantinople.
There is also another collection of 134 Novellae, in a Latin version made from the Greek text. This collection is generally called Authenticum or Liber Authenticorum: the compiler and the time of the compilation are unknown. This collection has been made independently of the Greek compilation. It is divided into nine Collationes, and the Collationes are divided into tituli. This was the collection which the Glossatores considered as having the authority of law.
The most complete work on the history of the Novellae is by Biener, GescMchte der Novellen. See also Beytrag zur Litterar-Gescldchte des Novellen-Auszugs von Julian, Von Haubold, Zeitsclirifl^ &c, vol. iv. The history of the collections of the Novellae is very confused, and it is impossible to state it correctly in a short space, (Puchta, Inst. i. § 147.)
NOVENDLVLE (sc. sacrum} was the name given to two different festivals. 1. Of a festival lasting nine days, which was celebrated as often as stones rained from heaven. It was originally, instituted by Tullus Hostilius, when there was a shower of stones upon the Mons Albanus, and was frequently celebrated in later times. (Liv. i. 31, xxi. 62, xxv. 7, xxvi. 23, xxvii. 37, xxix. 34.) 2. Of the sacrifice performed nine days after a funeral. [Fonus, p. 562, a.]
NOVI HOMINES. [nobiles.]
NOXA. [noxaus actio.]
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