The Ancient Library

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The Sabines, from the earliest times down to the end of their existence, had two names (Val. Max. de Nominum Ratione), one indicating the individual as such (praenomen\ e.g. Albus, Volesus, Pompus (Val. Max. l.c.\ Talus (Fest. s.v.), Caius, Titus, Quintus, Appius, &c., and the second the gens to which the individual belonged, which ter­minated like the Roman nomina gentilicia in ius or cius, e. g. Tatius, Pompilius, Claudius, &c. It is moreover a feature peculiar to the Saoines that a person sometimes, instead of a praenomen and a nomen gentilicium, had two nomina gentilicia, one indicating the gens of his father and the other that of his mother. The latter sometimes preceded and sometimes followed the former. This custom is clear from Livy (xxxix. 13, 17), who mentions a Campanian (Sabine) woman, Paculla Minia, who was married to a man who bore the name of Ccr-rinius from his gens, and one of the sons of these parents was called Minius Cerrinius. Another instance is the name of the Sabine augur Attius Navius, where, according to Dionysius (iii. p. 70), Attius is the ovofjia, crvyyei/GTiKois. Dionysius, however, must be mistaken in making Navius an oW/xa Trpovriyopiicbv, if he meant this to be the same as the Roman praenomen, which the name Navius never was. In all probability therefore both Attius and Navius are nomina gentilicia. A third instance seems to be Minatius Magius (Veil. Pat. ii. 16), the son of Decius Magius. This prac­tice must have been very common among the Sa­bines, for in most cases in which the two names of a person have come down to us, both have the ter­mination zms, as Marius Egnatius, Herius Asinius (Appian. B. C. i. 40), Statius Gellius (Liv. ix. 44), Ofilius Calavius. A more complete list of such Sabine names is given by Gbttling (Gescli. d. Rom. SLaatsv. p. 6. note 3), who supposes that a son bore ,the two nomina gentilicia of his father and mother only as long as he was unmarried, and that at his marriage he only retained the nomen gentilicium of his father, and, instead of that of his mother, took that of his wife. Of this, however, there is not sufficient evidence. Thus much is certain, that the Sabines at all times had two names, one a real praenomen, or a nomen gentilicium serving as a praenomen, and the second a real riomen gentili­cium, derived from the gens of the father. The Sabine women bore, as we have seen in the case of Paculla Minia, likewise two names, e. g. Vestia Oppia, Faucula Cluvia (Liv. xxvi. 33), but whether in case they both terminate in ia they are nomina gentilicia, and whether the one, as Gottling thinks, is derived from the gens of the woman's father, and the other from that of her husband, cannot be decided. Many Sabines also appear to have had a cognomen, besides their praenomen and nomen gentilicium ; but wherever this occurs, the prae­nomen is generally omitted, e. g. Herennius Bassus (Liv. xxiii. 43), Calavius Perolla (Liv. xxxiii. 8), Vettius Cato (Appian. B. C. i. 40), Insteius Cato, Popaedius Silo, Papius Mutilus (Veil. Pat. ii. 16). Such a cognomen must, as among the Romans, have distinguished the several familiae contained in one gens.

The Latins in the earliest times had .generally only one name, as is seen in the instances adduced by Varro (ap. Val. Max. I. c.\ Romulus, Remus, Faustulus, to which we may add the names of the kings of the Aborigines (Latins), Latiims, Ascanius, Capetus, Capys, Procas, Numitor, Amulius, and



others. When, therefore, Varro and Appian say that the earliest Romans had only one name, they were probably thinking of the Latins. There oc­cur, indeed, even at an early period, Latins with two names, such as Geminus Metius, Metius Suffetius, Vitruvius Vaccus, Turnus Herdonius, &c. ; but these names seem to be either two nomina gentilicia, or one a nomen gentilicium and the other a cognomen, and the Latins do not ap­pear to have had genuine prae nomina such as occur among the Sabines and afterwards among the Romans.

The Etruscans in the Roman historians generally bear only one name, as Porsenna, Spurinna, which apparently confirms the opinion of Varro ; but on many urns in the tombs of Etruria such names terminating in no, are frequently preceded by i\. praenomen. Miiller (Etntsk. i. p. 413, &c.), and Gottling (1. c. p. 31), who follows him, are of opinion that no Etruscan ever bore a nomen genti­licium, and that the names terminating in na- ore mere cognomina or agnomina. Niebuhr (Hist, of Rome, i. p. 381, note 922, and p. 500, note ] 107), on the other hand, thinks, and with more proba­bility, that the Etruscan na corresponds to the Sabine and Roman ius, and that accordingly such names as Porsenna, Spurinna, Caecina, Perperna, Vibenna, Ergenna, Mastarna, &c. are real nomina gentilicia.

From this comparison of the three original tribes, it is clear that when the Romans became united into one nation, they chiefly followed the custom of the Sabines, and perhaps that of the Latins. (Val. Max. I. c,) Originally every Roman citizen belonged to a gens, and derived his name (nomen or nomen gentilicium) from his gens. This nomen gentilicium generally terminated in ius, or with a preceding <?, in eius, which in later times was often changed into acus, as Annius, Anneius, and An-naeus ; Appuleius and Appulaeus. Nomina geri-tilicia terminating in ilius or elius, sometime;) change their termination into the diminutive illus and ellus, as Opillus, Hostillus, Quintillus, and Ofellus, instead of Opilius, Hostilius, Quintilius, and Ofelius. (Horat. Sat. ii. 2. 3, et passim.) Besides this nomen gentilicium every Roman had a name, called praenomen, which preceded the nomen gen­tilicium, and which was peculiar to him as an in­dividual, g. ff. Cains, Lucir.s, Marcus, Cneius, Sex-tus, &c. In early times this name was given to boys when they attained the age of pubertas, that is, at the age of fourteen, or, according to others, at the age of seventeen (Gellius, x. > 28), when they received the toga virilis. (Fest. s. v. Pules ; Scaevola ap. Val. Max. 1. c.) At a later time it was customary to give to boys a praenomen on the ninth day after their birth, and to girls on the eighth day. This solemnity was preceded by a lustratio of the child, whence the day was called dies lustricus, dies nominum, or nominalia. (Macrob. Sat. i. 16 ; Tertull. de Idolol. 6.) The praenomen given to a boy was in most cases that of the father, but sometimes that of the grandfather or great­grandfather. Hence we frequently meet with in­stances like M. Tullius, M. F/, that is, Marcus Tullius, Marci filius, or C. Octavius, C. F., C. N., C. P., that is, Caius Octavius, Caii filius, Caii nepoSj Caii pronepos. Sometimes, however, the praenomen was given without any reference to father or grand­father, &c. There existed, according to Varro, about thirty'praenomina, while nomina gentilicia

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