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On this page: Nenia – Neocori – Neodamodeis – Neptunalia – Nexi – Nexum


and of Eurydice. While she showed to the he­roes the way to the nearest well, she left the child behind lying in a meadow, which during her ab­sence was killed by a dragon. When the Seven on their return saw the accident, they slew the dragon and instituted funeral games (o/ywj/ eTTird^tos) to be held every third year (rpternpn^s). Other legends attribute the institution of the Nemean games to Heracles, after he had slain the Nemean Lon ; but the more genuine tradition was that he had either revived the ancient games, or at least introduced the alteration by which they were from this time celebrated in honour of Zeus. That Zeus was the god in honour of whom the games were afterwards celebrated is stated by Pindar (Nem. iii. 114, &c.). The games were at first of a war­like character, and only warriors and their sons were allowed to take part in them ; subsequently, however, they were thrown open to all the Greeks (Sy/j.OTiKbv ir\r)Qos oweSpa/xe). The games took place in a grove between Cleonae and Phlius. (Strabo, viii. p. 377.) The various games, ac­cording to the enumeration of Apollodorus (I. c.), were horse-racing, running in armour in the stadium (Paus. ii. 15. § 2), wrestling, chariot-racing and discus, boxing, throwing the spear and shooting with the bow, to which we may add musical con­tests. (Paus. viii. 50. §3 ; Plut. Philop. 11.) The Scholiasts on Pindar describe the agon very imperfectly as iirir.iKbs and ryv(j.viif.6s. The prize given to the victors was at first a chaplet of olive-branches, but afterwards a chaplet of green parsley. When this alteration was introduced is not certain, though it may be inferred from an ex­pression'of Pindar {Nem. vi. 71), who calls the parsley (o-eAtz/oj/) the jSoraj/a Ae<Wos, that the new prize was believed to have been introduced by Heracles. The presidency at these games and the management of them belonged at different times to Cleonae, Corinth, and Argos, and from the first of these places they are sometimes called a.y&w KAectjj/caos1. The judges who awarded the prizes were dressed in black robes, and an in­stance of their justice, when the Argives presided, is recorded by Pausanias (viii. 40. § 3).

Respecting the season of the year at which the Nemean games were celebrated, the Scholiast on Pindar (Argum. ad Nem.) merely states that they were held on the 12th of the month of Panemus, though in another passage he makes a statement which upsets this assertion. Pausanias (ii. 15. § 2) speaks of winter Nemea, 'and manifestly distin­guishes them from others which were held in summer. It seems that for a time the celebration of the Nemea was neglected, and that they were revived in 01. 53. 2, from which time Eusebius dates the first Nemead. Henceforth it is certain that they were for a long time celebrated regularly twice in every Olympiad, viz. at the commencement of every second Olympic year in the winter, and soon after the commencement of every fourth Olympic year in the summer. This has been shown by Bb'ckh in an essay uber die Zeitverli'dltnisse der DemostJi. Rede gegen Midias, in the transactions of the Berlin Acad. 1818, 1819. Histor. PMlol Klasse, p. 92, &c.; compare Ideler, Handb. der •Chronol. ii. p. 606, &c. About the time of the battle of Marathon it became customary in Argolis to reckon according to Nemeads.

In 208 b. c. Philip of Macedonia was honoured by the Argives with the presidency at.the Nemean



games (Liv. xxvii. 30, £c. ; Polyb. x. 26), and Quintius Flamininus proclaimed at the Nemea the freedom of the Argives. (Liv. xxxiv. 41 ; Polyb. x. 26.) The emperor Hadrian restored the horse- racing of boys at the Nemea, which had fallen into disuse. But after his time they do not seem to have been much longer celebrated, as they are no longer mentioned by any of the writers of the subsequent period. (See Villoison, Histoire de VAcad. des Inscript. et Bell. Lett. vol. xxxviii. p. 29, &c.; Schomann, Plutarcld Agis etCIeomenes, &c. §x.) [L.S.]

NENIA. [FuNus, p. 559, a.]

NEOCORI (v€a)K6poi), signified originally temple-sweepers (Hesych. and Suid. s. v.)9 but was applied even in early times to priestly officers of high rank, who had the supreme superintend­ence of temples and their treasures. (Plat. vi. p. 759 ; Xen. Anal. v. 3. § 6.) Under the Roman emperors the word was especially applied to those cities in Asia, which erected temples to the Roman einperors, since the whole city in every such case was regarded as the guardian of the worship of the emperor. Accordingly we frequently find on the coins of Ephesus, Smyrna, and other cities, the epithet New/copos, which also occurs on the in­scriptions of these cities. None of these cities, how­ever, was allowed to assume this honour without obtaining the permission of the Roman senate, as we learn from inscriptions. (Comp. also Tac. Ann, iv. 55, 56.) For further information on this sub­ject, see Krause, NE-QKOPO^, Civitates Neocorae sive Aedituae, Lips. 1844. [aeditui.]

NEODAMODEIS (i>eo5a/*e65eis). [helotes, p. 592.]

NEPTUNALIA, a festival of Neptune, cele­ brated at Rome, of which very little is known. (Varro, de Ling. Lot. vi. 19.) The day on which it was held, was probably the 23d of July. In the ancient calendaria this day is marked as Nept. ludi et feriae, or Nept. hidi, from which we see that the festival was celebrated with games. Re­ specting the ceremonies of this festival nothing is known, except that the people used to build huts of branches and foliage (umbrae, Fest. s.v. Umbrae}, in which they probably feasted, drank, and amused themselves. (Horat. Carm. iii. 28.1, &c. ; Tertull. De Sped. 6.) [L. S.]


NEXI. [nexum.]

NEXUM is defined by Manilius to be "omne quod per libram et aes geritur, in quo sint Man-cipia." Mucius Scaevola has a different definition : " quae per aes et libram fiant ut obligentur, praeter quae mancipio dentur." Varro (de Ling. Lat. vii. 105, ed. Miiller) who has preserved both these de­finitions, prefers the latter, as being consistent with the etymology of the word: " quod obligatur per libram, neque suum sit, inde Nexum dictum." As an illustration he adds : " Liber qui suas operas in servitutem pro pecunia quadam debebat, dum solveret, nexus vocatur, ut ab acre obaeratus." The difference in these definitions arises solely from the different aspect under which the Nexum is viewed. Every Nexum was in the form of a sale, and consequently, viewed as to its formal part, Nexum comprehended Mancipium. The Tes-tamenti factio was also included under Nexum. Viewed as to its object and legal effect, Nexum was either the transfer of the ownership of a thing, or the transfer of a thing to a creditor as a secu-

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