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manent one ; it continued to be used after others had been made, and was subsequently called the r'vetus naumachia." (Suet. Tit. 7 ; Dion Cass. Ixvi. 25 ; Ernesti, ad Suet. Tib. 72.) Claudius ex­hibited a magnificent sea-fight on the lake Fucinus. (Tacit. Ann. xii. 56 ; Suet. Claud. 21 ; Dion Cass. Ix. 33.) Nero appears to have preferred the am­phitheatre for these exhibitions. (Dion Cass. Ixi. 9, Ixii. 15.) Domitian made a new naumachia, and erected a building of stone around it, in which the spectators might sit to see the engagement. (Dion Cass. Ixvi. 8 ; Suet. Dom. 4, 5.) Representa­tions of naumachiae are sometimes given on the coins of the emperors. (Scheffer, de Militia Navali, ill 2. pp. 189, 191.)

The combatants in these sea-fights, called Nau-machiarii (Suet. Claud. 21), were usually captives (Dion Cass. xlviii. 19) or criminals condemned to death (Dion Cass. Ix. 33), who fought as in gladia­torial combats, until one party was killed, unless preserved by the clemency of the emperor. The ships engaged in the sea-fights were divided into two parties, called respectively by the names of different maritime nations, as Tyrians and Egyp­tians (Suet. Jul. 31), Rhodians and Sicilians (Suet. Claud. 21 ; Dion Cass. Ix. 33), Persians and Athe­nians (Dion Cass. Ixi. 9), Corcyraeans and Corin­thians, Athenians and Syracusans, &c. (Id. Ixvi. 25.) These sea-fights were exhibited with the same magnificence and lavish expenditure of human life as characterised the gladiatorial combats and other public games of the Romans. In Nero's naumachia there were sea-monsters swimming about in the artificial lake (Suet. Nero, 12 ; Dion Cass. Ixi. 9), and Claudius had a silver Triton placed in the middle of the lake Fucinus, who was made by machinery to give the signal for attack with a trumpet. (Suet. Claud. 21.) Troops of Nereids were also represented swimming about. (Martial, de Sped. 26.) In the sea-fight exhibited by Titus there were 3000 men engaged (Dion Cass. Ixvi. 25), and in that exhibited by Domitian the ships were almost equal in number to two real fleets (paenejustae classes. Suet. Dom. 4). In the battle on the lake Fucinus there were 19,000 com­batants (Tacit. Ann. xii. 56), and fifty ships on each side. (Dion Cass. Ix. 33.)

NAUTA. [ExEjicmmiA actio.] NAUTICON (vavTix6v). [fenus, p. 525, b.] NAUTO'DICAE (mvr6^ucat), are called apxai or magistrates by most of the ancient grammarians (Harpocrat. Suidas, Lex. Rhet. s. v. NauroSi/caj), while a few others call them Sucaa-rat. (Hesych. s. v.) The concurrent authority of most of them, together with a passage of Lysias (de Pecun. Publ. p. 189,'Bremi), the only Attic orator who mentions the nautodicae, renders it more than probable that they were a magistracy. This can be the less doubtful as the words Sticdfciv and SiKacrr^s are sometimes used of magistrates in their capacity of *lffay<aytis. (Meier, Ait. Proc. p. 28 ; see eisa-gogeis.) All testimonies of the ancients moreover agree that the nautodicae had the jurisdiction in matters belonging to navigation and commerce, and in matters concerning such persons as had entered their riames as members of a phratria without both their parents being citizens of Athens, or in other words, in the Sinai ^irop^v and Si/cat £eyms. The time when nautodicae were first instituted is not mentioned^ but the fact that they had the jurisdic­tion in cases where a person had assumed the



rights of a phrator without his father and mother being citizens, shows that their institution must belong to a time when it was sufficient for a man to be a citizen if only his father was a citizen, whatever his mother might be, that is, previous to the time of Pericles (Pint. Pericl. 37 ; compare civitas, p. 289), and perhaps as early as the time of Cleisthenes. The nautodicae were ap­pointed every year by lot in the month of Gamelion, and probably attended to the sikcu e/jnr6puv only during the winter, when navigation ceased, whereas the Si/cat £ei/ias might be brought before them all the year round.

It is a well known fact that the two actions (Siitat I^ir6p(av and Slicai £,€vias) which we havs here assigned to the nautodicae, belonged, at least at one time, to the thesmothetae. (Meier, Ait. Proc. p. 64, &c.) Several modern writers, such as Bockh, Baumstark, and others, have therefore been led to suppose that all the grammarians who call the nautodicae apxai are mistaken, and that the nautodicae were not eiffaywye'is in the cases above mentioned, but SiicacrTai. But this mode of settling the question does not appear to us to be as satisfactory as that adopted by Meier and Scho- mann. (Ait. Proc. p. 85, &c.) In all the speeches of Demosthenes no trace occurs of the nautodicae, and in the oration against Lacritus (p. 940), where all the authorities are mentioned before whom such a case as that of Lacritus might be brought, the orator could scarcely have failed to mention the nautodicae, if they had still existed at the time. It is therefore natural to suppose that the sikcu e,«,7r<$pcoj> at the time of Philip of Macedonia, when they became St'/cai hwtjvoi [emmeni dikai], were taken from the nautodicae and transferred to the thesmothetae. And as the republic could not now think it any longer necessary to continue the office of nautodicae, merely on account of the St/ccci leyiay, these latter were likewise transferred to the thesmothetae, and the office of the nautodicae was abolished. The whole period during which nauto­ dicae existed at Athens would thus comprehend the time from the legislation of Cleisthenes or soon after, to Philip of Macedonia. One difficulty how­ ever yet remains, for nautodicae are mentioned by Lucian (ii. p. 203, ed. Bip.) in a dialogue which the author represents as having taken place after the death of Alexander. Those who are unwilling to believe that Lucian here, as in other places, has been guilty of an anachronism, must suppose that the nautodicae were after their abolition restored for a time, of which however there is no other evi­ dence. (Compare Bc'ckh, Publ. Econ. i. § 9 ; Baum­ stark, De Curatoribus Emporii et Nautodicis apud Athenienses, pp. 65—78.) [L. S.]

NEBRIS, a fawn's skin (from ve€p6s, a fawn ; see aegis), worn originally by hunters and others as an appropriate part of their dress, and after­wards attributed to Dionysus (Eurip. Baccli. 9U, 125, 157, 790, ed. Matt. ; Aristoph. Ranae, 1209 ; Dionys. Perieg. 702, 946 ; Rufus Festus Avien. 1129), and consequently assumed by his votaries in the processions and ceremonies which they ob­served in honour of him. [DiONYSiA.] The an­nexed woodcut, taken from Sir Wm. Hamilton's Vases (i. 37), shows a priestess of Bacchus in the attitude of offering a nebris to him or to one of his ministers. The works of ancient art often show it as worn not only by male and female bae-chanalsj but also by Pans and Satyrs. It waai

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