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NAVIS,

it fleet of 200 sails, he also carried a decree, that every year twenty new Triremes should be built from the produce of the mines of Laurium. (Po-lyaen. i. 30 ; Plut. Themist. 4 ; comp. Bockh, Pull. Econ. p. 249, 2d edit.) After the time of Themistocles as many as twenty Triremes must have been built every year both in times of war and of peace, as the average number of Triremes which was always ready amounted to between three and four hundred. Such an annual addition was the more necessary, as the vessels were of a light structure and did not last long. The whole superintendence of the building of new Triremes was in the hands of the senate of the Five Hun­dred (Demosth. c. Androt. p. 598), but the actual business was entrusted to a committee called the Tpirjponoiol, one of whom acted as their treasurer, and had in his keeping the money set apart for the purpose. In the time of Demosthenes a treasurer of the rpirjpoiroioi ran away with the money, which amounted to two talents and a half. During the period after Alexander the Great the Attic navy appears to have become considerably diminished, as in 307 B. c. Demetrius Poliorcetes promised the Athenians timber for 100 new Triremes. (Diod. xx. 46 ; Pint. Demetr. 10.) After this time the Rhodians became the greatest maritime power in' Greece. The navy of Sparta was never of great importance.

Navigation remained for the most part what it had been before: the Greeks seldom ventured out. into the open sea, and it was generally considered necessary to remain in sight of the coast or of some island, which also served as guides in daytime : in the night the position, rising and setting of the different stars answered the same purpose. In winter navigation generally ceased altogether. In cases where it would have been necessary to coast around a considerable extent of country, which was connected with the main land by a narrow neck, the ships were sometimes drawn across the neck of land from one sea to the other, by machines called oA/coi. This was done most frequently across the isthmus of Corinth. (Herod, vii. 24 ; Thucyd. viii. 1, iii. 15, with the Schol. ; Strab. viii. p. 380 ; Polyb. iv. 19, v. 101.)

Now as regards the various kinds of ships used by the Greeks, we might divide them with Pliny according to the number of ranks of rowers em­ployed in them, into Moneres, Biremes, Triremes, Quadriremes, Quinqueremes, &c., up to the enor­mous ship Avit'h forty ranks of rowers, built by Ptolemaeus Philopator .(Plin. 1. c. ; Athen. v. p. 203, &c.) But all these appear to have been constructed on the same principle, and it is more convenient to divide them into skips of ivar and skips of burden (QopTiKa, tyopTyyol, 6A/ca8es, 7rAo?a, trrpoyyvXai^naves onerariae^naves actuarial)* Ships of the latter kind were not calculated for quick movement or rapid sailing, but to carry the greatest possible quantity of goods. Hence their structure was bulky, their bottom round, and although they were not without rowers, yet the chief means by which they were propelled were their sails.

The most common ships of war in the earlier times were the pentecontori (7rej/T?7K(Wopoi), but afterwards they were chiefly Triremes, and the latter are frequently designated only by the name yfjes, while all the others are called by the name indi­cating their peculiar character. Triremes however were again divided into two classes; the one con-

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sisting of real men-of-war, which were quick-sail-ing vessels (raxeTat), and the other of transports either for soldiers ((rrpaTiuTiSes or OTrXtraywyoi') or for horses (iinrrjyoi, iTnro.yuiyoi). Ships of this class were more heavy and awkward, and were therefore not used in battle except in cases of ne­cessity. (Thucyd. i. 116.) It seems to have been a common practice to use as transports for soldiers and horses such Triremes as had become useless as men-of-war. The ordinary size of a war galley may be inferred from the fact that the average number of men engaged in it, including the crew and marines, was two hundred, to whom on some occasions as much as thirty epibatae were added. (Herod, viii. 17, vii. 184; comp. epibatae and Boekh, Pull. Econ. p. 278, &c.) The rapidity with which these war galleys sailed may be gathered from various statements in ancient writers, and appears to have been so great, that even we cannot help looking upon it without astonishment, when we find that the quickness of an ancient trireme nearly equalled that of a modern steam­boat. Among the war-ships of the Athenians their sacred state-vessels were always included (PA-B;ALtrs ; comp. Bockh, Urkunden uber d. Seeivesen des Att. Staats, p. 76, &c.); but smaller vessels, such as the Tr€vri]K6i>Topoi or rpiaKdvropoi, are never included when the sum of men-of-war is mentioned, and their use for military purposes ap­pears gradually to have ceased.

Vessels with more than three ranks of rowers on each side were not constructed in Greece till about the year 400 b.c., when Dionysius I., tyrant of Syracuse, who bestowed great care upon his navy, built the first Quadriremes (rerp^jpeis), with which he had probably become acquainted through the Carthaginians, since the invention of these vessels is ascribed to them. (Plin. //. N. vii. 57 ; Diodor.. xiv. 41, 42.) Up to this time no Quinqueremes (nevT'tipeis') had been built, and the invention of them is likewise ascribed to the reign of Dionysius. Mnesigeiton (ap. Plin. I. c.) ascribes the invention of Quinqueremes to the Salaminians, and if this statement is correct, Dionysius had his Quinque­remes probably built by a Salaminian ship-builder. In the reign of Dionysius II. Hexeres (e^peis). are also mentioned, the invention of which was ascribed to the Syracusans. (Aelian, V. H. vi. 12, with the note of Perizonius ; Plin. /. c.) After the time of Alexander the Great the use of vessels with four, five, and more ranks of rowers became very general, and it is well known from Polybius (i. 63, &c.) that the first Punic war was chiefly carried on with Quinqueremes. Ships with twelve, thirty, or even forty ranks of rowers (Plin.I.e.; Athen. v. p. 204, &c.), such as they were built by Alexander and the Ptolemies, appear to have been mere curiosities* and did not come into common vise. The Athenians at first did not adopt vessels larger than Triremes,probably because they thought that with rapidity and skill they could do more than with large and unwieldy ships. In the year b.c. 356 they continued to use nothing but Tri­remes ; but in 330 B. c. the republic had already a number of Quadriremes, which was afterwards increased. The first Quinqueremes at Athens are mentioned in a document (in Bockh's Urkunden, N. xiv. litt. K.) belonging to the year b. c. 325. Herodotus (vi. 87), according to the common reading, calls the theoris, which in 01. 72 the Aeginetans took from the Athenians^ a

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