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NAVIS.

lated according to naucraries. Cleisthenes in his change of the Solonian constitution retained the division into naucraries for military and financial purposes (Phot. I. c.), but he increased their num­ber to fifty, making five of each of his ten tribes, so that now the number of their ships was in­creased from forty-eight to fifty, and that of horse­men from ninety-six to one hundred. The state­ment of Herodotus (vi. 89) that the Athenians in their war against Aegina had only fifty ships of their own, is thus perfectly in accordance with the fifty naucraries of Cleisthenes. The functions of the former vavKpapoi, as the heads of their respective naucraries, were now transferred to the demarchs. [demarchl] (Harpocrat. s. v. A-fyuapx05-) The obligation of each naucrary to equip a ship of war for the service of the republic may be regarded as the first form of trierarchy. (Lex. Rhetor, p. 283.) As the system of trierarchy became developed and established, this obligation of the naucraries ap­pears to have gradually ceased and to have fallen into disuse. (Compare trierarchia.) [L. S.] NAUCRARUS. [naucraria.] NAVIS (ravs). The beginning of the art of ship-building and of navigation among the Greeks must be referred to a time much anterior to the ages of which we have any record. Even in the earliest mythical stories long voyages are men­tioned, which are certainly not altogether poetical fabrications, and we have every reason to suppose that at that early age ships were used which were far superior to a simple canoe, and of a much more complicated structure. The time, therefore, when boats consisted of one hollow tree (Monooeyla), or when ships were merely rafts (Rates, dxeSicu) tied together with leathern thongs, ropes, and other substances (Plin. H. N. vii. 57), belongs to a period of which not the slightest record has reached us, although such rude and simple boats or rafts continued occasionally to be used down to the latest times, and appear to have been very common among several of the barbarous nations with which the Romans came in contact. (codex ; compare Quintil. x. 2 ; Flor. iv. 2 ; Fest. s. v. Schedia; Liv. xxi. 26.) Passing over the story of the ship Argoandthe expedition of the Argonauts, we shall proceed to consider the ships as described in the Homeric poems.

The numerous fleet, with which, the Greeks are said to have sailed to the coast of Asia Minor, must on the whole be regarded as sufficient evi­dence of the extent to which navigation was car­ried on in those times, however much of the detail in the Homeric description may have arisen from the poet's own imagination. In the Homeric cata­logue it is stated that each of the fifty Boeotian ships carried 120 warriors (77. ii. 510), and a ship which carried so many cannot have been of very small dimensions. What Homer states of the Boeotian vessels applies more or less to the ships of other Greeks. These boats were provided with a mast (iVrds) which was fastened by two ropes (irpoTovoi} to the two ends of the ship, so that when the rope connecting it with the prow broke, the mast would fall towards the stern^ where it might kill the helmsman. (Od. xii, 409, &c.) The mast could be erected or taken down as ne­cessity required. They also had sails (urria but no deck ; each vessel however appears to have had only one sail, which was used in fa­vourable wind j and the principal means of pro-

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pelling the vessel lay in the rowers, who sat upon benches (tfATj'/'Ses). The oars were fastened to the side of the ship with leathern thongs (rporrol 5ep-/xcmi/oi, Od. iv. 782), in which they were turned as a key in its hole. The ships in Homer are mostly called black (/ueAcur/cu), probably because they were painted or covered with a black sub­stance, such as pitch, to protect the wood against the influence of the water and the air ; sometimes other colours, such as juiAros, minium (a red co­lour), were used to adorn the sides of the ships near the prow, whence Homer occasionally calls ships jjLiXroTrcipyoi, i, e. red-cheeked (IL ii. 637, Od. ix. 125) ; they were also painted occasionally with a purple colour (</>oij/jK07rapr?oi, Od. xi. 124). Herodotus says (iii. 58) that all ships were painted with /uAros. When the Greeks had landed on the coast of Troy, the ships were drawn on land, and fastened at the poop to large stones with a rope which served as anchors (II. i. 436, xiv. 77, Od. ix. 137, xv. 498 ; Moschopul. ad II. i. 436). The Greeks then surrounded the fleet with a forti­fication to secure it against the attacks of the enemy. This custom of drawing the ships upon the shore, when they were not used, was followed in later times also, as every one will remember from the accounts in Caesar's Commentaries. There is a celebrated but difficult passage in the Odyssey (v. 243, &c.), in which the building of a boat is described, although not with the minuteness which an actual ship-builder might wish for. Odysseus first cuts down with his axe twenty trees, and pre­pares the wood for his purpose by cutting it smooth and giving it the proper shape. He then bores the holes for nails and hooks, and fits the planks together and fastens them with nails. He rounds the bottom of the ship like that of a broad trans­port vessel, and raises the bulwark (frcpta), fitting it upon the numerous ribs of the ship. He after­wards covers the whole of the outside with planks, which are laid across the ribs from the keel up­wards to the bulwark ; next the mast is made, and the sail-yard attached to it, and lastly the rudder. When the ship is thus far completed, he raises the bulwark still higher by wickerwork which goes all around the vessel, as a protection against the waves. This raised bulwark of wicker-work and the like was used in later times also. (Eustath. ad Od. v. 256.) For ballast Odysseus throws into the ship vA^, which according to .-the Scholiast consisted of wood, stones, and sand. Calypso then brings him materials to make a sail of, and he fastens the virepai or ropes which run. from the top of the mast to the two ends of the yard, and also the KaAot with which the sail is drawn up or let down. The TrdSes- mentioned in this passage were undoubtedly, as in the later times, the ropes attached to the two lower corners of the square sail. (Comp. Nitzsch. Anmerk. z. Odyss. vol. ii. p. 35, &c. ; Ukert, Bemerk. uber Horn. Geogr. p. 20.) The ship of which the building is thus described was a small boat, a tr%e8ta as Homer calls it ; but it had like all the Homeric ships a round or flat bottom. Greater ships must have been of a more complicated struc­ture, as ship-builders are praised as artists. (//. v. 60, &c.) Below, under Cerucld, a represent­ation of two boats is given which appear to bear great resemblance to the one of which the building is described in the Odyssey. (Comp. Thiiiwall, Hist, of Greece, vol. i. p. 21i).)

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