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A very full account of the Greek mysteries is given by Limburg-Brouwer, Hist, de la Civilisat. Mor. et Relig. des Grecs, vol. iv. p. 180—415, and chapter xxvi. of the same work contains a useful survey of the various opinions upon the subject which have been entertained by modern .scholars and philosophers. [L. S.]
MYSTILE Guvo-n'AT]). [coena, p. 305, aj.
MYSTRUM Ovo-rpo!/), a Greek liquid measure, of which there were two sizes, called the large and small mystrum. The small, which was the more common of the two, was ^ of the cotyla, and i of the cyathus, and therefore contained about l-50th of an English pint. (Galen, Frag. c. 15.) Galen adds that the smaller mystrum contained 1\ drachms, that the larger was -^ of the cotyla, and contained 3^ drachms ; but that the most exact mystrum (rb ^iKai6ra.rov fAUffrpov) held 8 scruples, that is, 2f drachms. According to this, the small mystrum would be £ of the larger. But in the 13th chapter of the same fragment he makes the large mystrum = i of the cotyla and the small mystrum ^ of the large. In c. 4 he makes the large mystrum == 3 oxybapha, and the small = li. Cleopatra makes the large = •£-$ of the cotyla, the small= aV (Wunn, de Pond. p. 130.) [P. S.J
NATURA, NATURA'LIS RATIO. [Jus.]
NAVALIA, were docks at Rome where ships
were built, ,lflicl up, and refitted. They were
Trigemina, and were connected with the Tiber.
(Liv. xxxv. 10, xl. 51, xlv. 2.) The emporium
and navalia were first included within the walls
of the city by Aurelian. (Vopisc. Aurel. 21.)
The docks (z/ecocroi/coi or j/ecopta) in the Peiraeeus at Athens cost 1000 talents, a^id having been destroyed in the anarchy were again restored and finally completed by Lycurgus. (Isocr. Areopag. 25; Bockh, Pull Econ. p. 201, 2nd ed.) They were under the superintendence of regular officers called 67n,ueA?7Tat t&v veupitai'. [epimeletae, No. 5.]
NAVALIS CORONA. [corona, p. 360,] NAVARCHUS (vavapxos) is the name by which the Greeks designated both the captain of a single ship, and the admiral of a fleet. The office itself was called vaua/>xta. The admiral of the Athenian fleet was always one of the ten generals (trrpa.rt]jol) elected every year, and he had either the whole or at least the principal command of the fleet. (Plut. Themist. 18.) The chief officers who served under him were the trierarchs and the pen-tecontarchs, each of whom commanded one vessel ; the inferior officers in the vessels were the Kv€ep-VYJrai or helmsmen, the KeAevfprcu or commanders of the rowers, and the Trpcoparai who must have
been employed at the prow of the vessels. (Xenoph.-de Republ. Ath. 1, 2. § 20 ; compare stra-tegus.)
Other Greek states who kept a navy had likewise their navarchs. A Spartan navarchus is mentioned by Xenophoii (Hellen. ii. 1. § 7), and under him served an officer called eVitrroAeus. (Pollux, i. 96 ; Sturz, Lex. Xenoph. ii. p. 321.) The navarchia of Sparta however was an innovation of later times, when the Spartans had acquired a fleet and possessions in foreign countries. The office was distinct from that of the kings, and Aristotle (Polit. ii. 6. p. 69, ed. Gb'ttling) calls it (T^eS^i/ erepa jScwnAeia. (See Weber, Do Gyilieo et Lacedaemoniorum Reb. Navalib. p. 73, &c.)
The navarchus in Rhodes seems to have been their chief military officer. We find him autho rized to conclude treaties with foreign nations (Polyb. xvii. 1), and sent on embassies in the name of the republic. (Polyb. xxx. 8 ; Liv. xlv. 25.) [L. S.]
NAUCRARIA (vavKpapia) is the name of a division of the inhabitants of Attica. The four Attic phylae were each divided into three phratries, and each of these twelve phratries into four nau-craries, of which there were thus forty-eight. This division is ascribed to Solon (Photius, i-. v. Nau-Kpapia), but Herodotus (v. 71) in relating the insurrection of Cylon mentions mpgistrates at Athens called irpvravis Ttav vavKpapwv, so that the nau-craries must have existed long before Solon. There is, however, some difficulty connected with this passage of Herodotus, inasmuch as Thucydides (i. 126) in relating the same event mentions the nine archons instead of the prytanes of the nau-craries. Wachsmuth (flellen. Alt. vol. i. p. 366, 2d ed.) endeavours very ingeniously to reconcile Herodotus and Thucydides, by supposing that the prytanes of the naucraries were the same as the trittyarchs, the assessors of the first archon, and were thus identified by Thucydides with the archons themselves. What the naucraries were previous to the legislation of Solon is not stated anywhere, but it is not improbable that they were political divisions similar to the demes in the constitution of Cleisthenes, and were made perhaps at the time of the institution of the nine archons for the purpose of regulating the liturgies, taxes, or financial and military affairs in general, (Bockh, Publ. Econ. ii. §21.) Tittmann (Griech. Staatsv. p. 269) moreover supposes with some probability, that they were, like the demes of Attica., local divisions. Hence the grammarians inform us- that vavitpapos, or the chief officer of every naucraryv was the same as the demarch. At any rate, however, the naucraries before the time of Solon can have had no connection with the navy, for the Athenians then had no navy, and the Wofd vavtfpapos cannot be derived from z/a9s, a s-hip, buit from ycu'co, and vavKpapos is only another form for vavKXypos in the sense of a householder, as vavXov was used for the rent of a house. (Pollux, x. 20 ; Wachsmuth, Hellen. Alt.^oll p. 367 ; Thirl wall, Hist. o/Gr. vol. ii. p. 52.)
Solon in his legislation thus only retained the old institution of the naucraries. His innovation probably was that he charged each of them with the equipment of one trireme and with the mounting of two horsemen. (Pollux, viii. 108.) All military affairs, as far as regards the defraying of expenccs, probably continued as before to be regif