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Roman musical system entirely distinct from the Greek. A passage in Cicero would lead us to suppose that the laws of contrast, of light and shade, of loud and soft, of swelling and diminishing, were understood by the Romans (de Orat. iii. 44), and another passage from Apuleius decidedly proves that the Romans had instrumental music distinct from their vocal; on both of which points there is not the same clear evidence to decide the question with reference to the Greeks. Still the Roman musical writers, as St. Augustin, Macrobius, Mar-tianus Capella, Cassiodorus, and Boethius (all of whom flourished between the fourth and sixth centuries of the Christian era), did nothing to improve the science of music, and were little more than copyists of their Greek predecessors. The great improvement which the Romans introduced (rather a practical than a theoretical one)' was a simplification of the musical nomenclature, effected by rejecting the arbitrary signs in use among the Greeks, and substituting for them the first fifteen letters of the Roman alphabet. (Hawkins, vol. i. p. 279.) This simplification they were enabled to make by a reduction of the modes : indeed it seems very probable that this complicated system had in practice entirely fallen into disuse, as we know that the diatonic genus had usurped the place of the two other genera.
Of all Latin authors Boethius gives the most profound account of the subject. His work is a carrying out of the old Pythagorean system, and is a mere abstract speculation on the nature of music, which, viewed as one of the quadrivium or four mathematical sciences, has its foundation in number and proportion. A full analysis of the work may be seen in Hawkins (i. p. 338). It contains, 1st, an investigation into the ratios of consonances ; 2nd, a treatise on several kinds of proportion ; 3rd, a declaration of the opinions of different sects with respect to the division of the monochord and the general laws of harmony.
Before this time St. Ambrose had introduced the practice of antiphonal singing in the church at Milan. Of the nature of the Ambrosian chant we only know that it consisted in certain progressions, corresponding with different species of the diapason. It is described as a kind of recitation, more like reading than singing.
It was by St. Gregory the Great that the octave was substituted for the tetrachord as the fundamental division of the scale. The first, octave he denoted by capital letters A, B, C, &e., the second by small letters a, b, c, &c., and when it became necessary to extend the system, marked the third by small letters doubled, a a, bb, &uz. There is no proof that the Romans, any more than the Greeks, had any notation with reference to time. Where vocal music was united with instrumental, the time was marked by the metre of the song: the want of a notation of time would make us doubt whether any but a very simple style of merely instrumental music prevailed among them. (Hawkins's History of Music, vol. i.; Burney's History of Music, vol. i.)
For a general account of ancient music the reader is referred to the previous article. [B. J.]
MUSFVUM OPUS. [Dosius, p. 431; Pic-
TURA, No. XV.]
MUSTAX (pfoTag), moustaches. The different parts of the beard [barba] had different names, which also varied with its age and appearance. The young beard, first appearing on the upper
lip, was 'called vTr-fjvr) or vir^vj] Trpc&Tf) (Diod. V. 28, Philostr. Sen. Imag. i. 30, ii. 7, 9), and the youth just arrived at puberty, who was graced with it, was Trp&rojs utttjm^ttjs. (Horn. II. xxiv. 348, Od. x. 279 ; Schol. in loc. ; Brunck, Anal. iii. 44 ; Aelian, V. H. x. 1 8.) By its growth and develop ment it produced the moustaches, which the Greeks generally cherished as a manly ornament. (Theocrit. xiv. 4 ; Antiphanes, ap. Athen. iv. 21 ; Pollux, ii. 80, x. ] 20.) To this practice, however, there seems to have been one exception. The Spartan ephori, when they were inducted, made a pro clamation requiring the people " to shave their moustaches and obey the laws." For what reason they gave the former command does not appear. (Plut. de Sera Num. Vind. p. 976, ed. Steph. ; Proclus in Hes. Op. et Dies, 722 ; Miiller, Dor. iii. 7. § 7, iv. 2. § 5 ; Becker, Charikles, vol. ii. p. 391.) [J. Y.]
MUTATIONES. [mansio.] •MU'TUUM. The Mutui datio is mentioned by Gaius as an instance of an obligatio " quae re contrahitur."- It exists when things " quae pon-dere, numero, mensurave constant," as coined money, wine, oil, corn, aes, silver, gold, are given by one man to another so as to become his, but on the condition that an equal quantity of the same kind shall be returned. The difference in the thing which is lent constitutes one of the differences between this contract and commodatum. In the mutui datio, inasmuch as the thing became the property of the receiver, the Roman jurists were led to the absurdity of saying that tnutuwm was so called for this reason (quod ex meo tuumfif). This contract gave the lender the action called condictio, provided he was the owner of the things, and had the power of alienation; otherwise he had no action till the things were consumed. If the borrower lost the things by any accident as fire, shipwreck, &c., he was still bound : the reason of which clearly was, that by the Mutui datio the things became his own. It was a stricti juris actio, and the lender could have no interest for a loan of money, unless interest had been agreed on. The borrowing by way of Mutuum and at interest are opposed by Plautus (A sin. i. 3. 95). The Senatus-consultum Macedonianum did not allow a right of action to a lender against a filmsfamilias to whom he had given money " nmtua," even after the death of the father. [senatusconsuj.tum macedonianum.] (Gaius, iii. 90 ; Inst. 3. tit. 14 ; Dig. 12. tit. 1. De Rebus Creditis ; Cod. 4. tit. 1 ; Vangerow, Pandekten, &c. iii. § 623.) [G. L.]
MYRII (fjivpioi), the name given to the popular assembly of the Arcadians, which was established after the overthrow of the Spartan supremacy by the battle of Leuctra, and which used to meet at Megalopolis in order to determine upon matters affecting the whole people. (Xen. Hell. vi. 5. §S6, vii. 1. § 38, vii. 4. § 2 ; Diod. xv. 59 ; Dem. de Fcds. Leg. p. 344 ; Aeschin, de Fals. Leg. p. 257; Pans. viii. 32. § 1; Harpocrat. Suid. Phot. s. v. ; Schdmann, Antiq. Jur. Publ. Gr. p. 410.)
MYSIA (juivaia), a festival celebrated by the inhabitants of Pellene in Achaia, in honour of Demeter Mysia. The worship of this goddess was introduced at Pellene from a place called Mysia in the neighbourhood of Argos. (Pans. ii. 18. § 3.) The festival of the Mysia near Pellene lasted for seven days, and the religious solemnities