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signified the singing or playing in two parts at an interval of an octave ; and the word is derived from payaSis, the name of a stringed instrument which had sufficient compass to allow a succession of octaves to be played on it. (This practice of magadizing could not fail, of course, to arise as soon as men and women attempted to sing the same melody at once.) The obvious meaning of the passage then is, that since no interval except the octave could be magadized (the effect of any other is well known to be intolerable), therefore no other interval was employed at all ; implying that no other kind of counterpoint than magadizing was thought of. But the words are certainly capable of a somewhat milder interpretation.
In the next place, the constitution of the scale was, as has been seen, very unfit for harmony, the beauty of which depends so essentially upon the use of thirds. The true major third was either not discovered or not admitted to be consonant till a very late period, Ptolemy being the earliest extant author who speaks of the minor tone (Burney,vol. i. p. 448) ; a fact which is so extraordinary and so contrary to all that could have been anticipated, as to destroy all confidence in any a priori reasonings on the subject, and to exclude .all but actual evidence on either side. The positive evidence in favour of the existence of counterpoint consists chiefly in certain indications of two modes having been sometimes used at once. Thus the expression in Horace (Epod. ix. 5),
" Sonante mistum tibiis carmen lyra Hac Dorium, illis barbarum,"
is interpreted to mean that the lyre was played in the Dorian mode, and the tibiae in the Lydian ; so that if the ancient Dorian and Lydiari octave were employed, the former being of the fourth species, while the latter was of the second, and pitched two tones higher, the series of intervals heard would consist of fourths and major thirds, or rather double tones.
Again, there are passages such as —
Alo\evs %€aiv€ Awpiav
(quoted from Pindar by the Scholiast on Pytli. ii. 127), which are supposed to indicate that poetry written in one mode and sung accordingly, was accompanied by instruments in another. For a view of the most that can be made of such arguments, see Bockh, iii. 10. Our knowledge of the real use of the modes is so very imperfect, that not much reliance can be placed on them ; and at any rate they would only prove the existence of a kind of magadizing, modified by taking scales of different (instead of the same) species for the two parts, so as to avoid the succession of intervals absolutely the same. This would certainly be the very lowest kind of counterpoint ; but if any thing more had been practised, it would be absolutely impossible to account for the utter silence of the theoretical writers, which is all but fatal even to such a limited hypothesis. It is only necessary to add that the influence of instruments upon the development of the art ought to be kept in view in considering this question. The Greeks had only two kinds of instrumental music, avhytris and Kiddpiffis. The atf\os was always a pipe pierced with holes, so as to have an artificial scale. The simple tube or trumpet does not appear to have been used as a musical instrument, so that the scale of natural
harmonics was probably unknown; and this may partly account for the major third escaping observation. And anything like the modern system of harmony could probably no more have been invented without the assistance of keyed instruments than the Elements of Euclid could have been composed in the total absence of drawing materials. For a fuller account of ancient musical instruments see Bbckh, iii. ] 1.
The chief authorities on the subject of this article are the "Antiquae Musicae Auctores Septem," viz.: Aristoxenus, Euclid, Nicomachus, Alypius, Gaudentius, Bacchius, Aristides, Quinti- lianus,and MartianusCapella, edited by Meibomius, in one volume (Amsterdam, 1652), to the pages of which the preceding quotations refer; the Har monics of Ptolemy (with an Appendix by Wallis, Op. Mathumat. vol. iii.) ; the Dialogue of Plutarch ; and a section of the AristotelicProblemata; Burney, History of Music; Bockh, de Metris Pindari ; Drieberg, Musikalische Wissenschaften der Griechen; and Aufschlusse uber die Musik der Griechen; Bode, Gesch. der Lyrisch. Dichtkunst der Hellenen; Fort- lage, Das Musikalische System der Griechen, Leipzig, 1847. [W.F.D.]
2. roman. It may well be believed that in music as in the other arts, the genius of Greece had left little for Romans to do, but admire and imitate. Yet we must not forget that another element had been introduced into the arts of Rome, as well as into her language and government; one which was derived from Etruria, and partook of an Oriental character. Every species of musical instrument found on Greek works of art is found also on Etruscan. No doubt the early Roman music was rude and coarse, still from the most ancient times mention is made of hymns and flutes in their triumphal processions: so Servius Tullius in his comitia made two whole centuries of cor-nicines and tibicines; and the Twelve Tables allowed at funerals ten players on the flute, and enjoined that " the praises of great men should be sung in mournful songs (neniae) accompanied by the flute."
The year b. c. 365 marks an era in Roman music by its adaptation to theatrical amusements. It is in this year we find mention of a lectisternium^ at which actors were first brought from Etruria, who, without verses, danced in dumb show to the sound of the flute. Some time later Livy (ix. 30) mentions a curious tale of the desertion of certain Roman flute-players, who were only brought back by an amusing stratagem. We learn from Valerius Maximus (ii. 5) that the Roman flute-players were incorporated into a college, and Ovid (Fast. vi. 657), speaking of their ancient importance, says —
" Temporibus veterum tibicinis usus avorum
Nero, as Suetonius (Nero, 24) tells us, played on the flute, and came in a sort of triumphal procession through Italy, bearing the spoils he had won in 1800 musical contests. The same writer informs us that the emperor, to preserve his voice, used to lie on his back with a thin plate of lead on his stomach; that he took frequent emetics and cathartics, and at last transacted all business in writing.
There does not appear to be any trace of a