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772 MURUS.

wall, the' interior being filled in with mortar and small rough stones. Vitruvius complains of these Walls as being apt to split, on account of their having neither horizontal courses nor covered joints. Another structure of which the Romans made great use, and which was one of the most durable of all, was that composed of courses of flat tiles (H). Such courses were also introduced in the other kinds of stone and brick walls, in which they both served as bond-courses, and, in the lower part of the wall, kept the damp from rising from the ground. Brick walls covered with stucco Were exceedingly common with the Romans: even columns were made of brick covered with stucco ; we have an example in the columns of the basilica at Pompeii, the construction of wnich is explained in Pompeii^ vol. i. p. 136. In hot countries, as in Africa and Spain, walls were built of earth rammed in between two faces or moulds (tabulae, formae}, which were removed when it hardened ; they were called parietes formacei ; and Pliny mentions watch-towers of this construction, built by Han­nibal, on the mountains of Spain, which still stood firm. (H. N. xxxv. 14. s. 48.) Walls of turf were chiefly used in the ramparts of camps ( agger,vallitm) and as embankments for rivers.

With respect to the use of walls as fortifications, we have not space to say much. The Cyclopean walls of Tiryns, &c., had no towers ; but Homer refers to towers on the walls of Troy •• and in the historical period we find that it was the practice to furnish walls with towers at regular intervals. Some writers on military affairs recommend them to be placed at salient angles of the walls, in order to command the intervening spaces, whilst others object to this position on account of the increased exposure of the tower itself to the battering ram. The account which Thucydides gives, in his se­cond book, of the siege of Plataeae, is an inter­esting exhibition of the state of the science of fortification and attack at the period of the Pelo-ponnesian war. Much was done to advance it by the architects and engineers of the time of Alex­ander and his successors. The rules which have been established by the time of the Roman em­perors may be seen -exhibited in detail by Vitruvius (i. 5), and the writers on military affairs, and il­lustrated by the Remains of the walls of Pompeii. (Pompeii, vol. i. pp. 66, &c.) The system may be described in a few words as a broad, terrace of earth (®gg&r} enclosed between two batylemented walls and furnished with towers, two, three, or more stories high, communicating by arched door­ways with the agger, and also having a sally-port. These towers were at distances, on the average, of the cast of a javelin, but varying according to the ;greater or less exposure of each part of the wall. Respecting tile gates, see port a. [P. S.]

MUSCULUS was, according to the description <of Vegetius (de !Re Milit. iv. 16), one of the smaller military machines, by which soldiers in besieging a town were protected while engaged in filling up the ditches 'round the besieged place, so that the moveaHe towers (turres ambulatoriae} of the besiegers might be able to approach the walls without obstacle. A minute description of a musculus is given by Caesar (de Bell. Civ. ii. 10, &c.). The "one which he describes was nine feet long, and. Was -constructed in the following man­ner':— Two beams of equal length were placed ttpxta the ground at the distance of four feet from


each other, and upon them were fixed little pillars five feet high. Their top-ends were joined by transverse beams, which formed a gentle slope on either side of the roof of which they formed the frame-work. The roof was then entirely covered with pieces of wood, two feet broad, which were fastened with metal plates and nails. Around the edge of this roof square pieces of wood, four cubits broad, were fixed for the purpose of keeping to­ gether the bricks and mortar with which the musculus was then covered. But that these mate­ rials, which were intended to protect the musculus against fire, might not suffer from water, the bricks and mortar were covered with skins ; and that these skins again might not suffer from the fire or stones which the besieged might throw upon the musculus, the whole was covered with rags of cloth. The whole of this machine was constructed under the cover of a vinea, and close by the Roman tower. At a moment when the besieged were least expecting any attack, the musculus was moved on against the wall of the town. The men engaged under it immediately began to undermine the wall and thus to make a breach in it; and while this work was going on, the besiegers kept up a lively fight with the besieged in order to prevent them from directing their attacks against the musculus. (Compare Caes. de Bell. 'Civ. iii. 80, de Bell. AUx. 1.) The musculus described by Caesar was evi­ dently designed for different purposes than the one mentioned by VegetiUs, and the former appears to have been only a smaller but a more indestructible kind of vinea than that commonly used. (Lipsius, Poliorc. i. 9 ; Guichard, Memoires Milit. ii. p. 58. tab. 2.) [L. S.]

MUSEIA (Mou<ma), a festival with contests celebrated at Thespiae in Boeotia in honour of the Muses. (Paus. ix. 31. § 3.) It was held every fifth year and with great splendour. (Plut. Amator. p. 748, p.) From Aeschines (c. Timarch.) it ap­ pears that there was also a festival called Museia, which was celebrated in schools. [L. S.]

MUSEUM (Mou(re?oz/) signified in general a place dedicated to the Muses, but was specially the name given to an institution ;at Alexandria, founded by Ptolemy Philadelphtts, about b.c. 280, for the promotion of learning and the support of learned men. (Athen. v. p. 203.) We learn from Strabo (xviii. p. 794) that the museum formed part of the palace, !and that it contained cloisters or porticos^ (7T€p/7raTos), a public theatre or lecture-room (e|e5pa), and a large hall (oLcos ^ya.s\ where the learned men dined together. The mu­seum was supported by a common fund, supplied apparently from the public treasury ; and the whole institution was under the superintend.ence of a priest, who wavs appointed by the king, and after Egypt became a province 6f the Roman em­pire, by the Caesar. (Strabo, I. c.} Botanical and zoological gardens appear to have been at< tached to the museum. (Philostr. Apollon. vi. 24 ; Athen. xiv. p. 654.) The emperor Claudius added another museum to this institution. (Suet. Claud. 42, with Casaubon's note.)

MUSlOA (tj ,uoO<ri/d)), signified in general any art over which the Muses presided, but is some­times employed to indicate Music in the modern acceptation of the term. 1. greek. In compiling the following article little more has been attempted than to give an outline of facts which rest upon posi­tive evidence, and at the same time to present them

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