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situated on some of the streams falling into the Moselle, and used for cutting marble into slabs. (Mosella, 362, 363.)

VI. The pepper-mill. A mill for grinding pep­ per, made of boxwood, is mentioned by Petronius (moiea buccea piper trivit., Sat. 74). [J. Y.]

MONARCHIA (povapxicC), a general name for any form of government in which the supreme functions of political administration are in the hands of a single person. The term /Aoi/ap%icc is applied to such governments, whether they are he­ reditary or elective, legal or usurped. In its com­ monest application, it is equivalent to /3a<nAeia, •whether absolute or limited. But the rule of an aesymnetes or a tyrant would equally be called a fjiovapxta. (Arist. Pol. iii. 9, 10, iv. 8 ; Plato, Polit. p. 291, c. e. p. 302, d. e.). Hence Plutarch uses it to express the Latin dictatura. It is by a somewhat rhetorical use of the word that it is ap­ plied now and then, to the Sfyuos. (Eurip. Suppl. 352 ; Arist. Pol. iv. 4.) For a more detailed ex­ amination of the subject the reader is referred to the article rex, archon, tyrannus, prytanis, aesymnetes, tagus. [C. P. M.]

MONETA, the mint or the place where money was coined. The mint of Rome was a building on the Capitoline, and attached to the temple of Juno Moneta, as the aerarium was to the temple of Saturn. (Liv. vi. 20.) This temple was vowed by Camillas, and dedicated in 344 b.c. on the spot where the house of M. Manlius Capitolinus had once been standing. (Liv. vii. 28 ; Ov. Fast. vi. 183.) Some writers describe the art of coining as having been known to the Italians from the earliest times, and assign its invention to Janus (Macrob. Sat. i. 7 ; Athen. xv. p. 692) ; but this and similar accounts are nothing more than fables. The statement of Piiny (H. N. xxxiii. 3), who as­signs the invention of coining to Servius Tullius, has somewhat more of an historical aspect ; and he derives the name pecunia from the circumstance that the coins were originally marked with the image of some animal. The earliest Roman coins were .of aes [aes], and not struck, but cast in a mould. (See the representation of such a mould on page l»45.) The moulds, however, were sometimes with­out any figure and merely shaped the metal, and in this case, the image as well as the name of the gens, &c., were struck upon it by means of a ham­mer upon an anvil on which the form was fixed. As the strokes of the hammer were not always equal, one coin though equal in value with another mi^ht differ from it in thickness and shape.

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Greater equality was produced at the time when the Romans began to strike their money ; but when this custom became general, is not known. Respecting the changes which were introduced at Rome at various times in the coinage see aes, As, argentum, aurum, and nummljs.

In the early times of the republic we do not read of any officers who were charged with the superintendence of the mint ; and respecting the introduction of such officers we have but a very vague statement of Pomponius. (Dig. 1. tit. 2. § 30.) Their name was triumviri monetales, and Niebuhr (Hist, of Rome, iii. p. 646) thinks that they were introduced at the time when the Ro­mans first began to coin silver, i. e. 269 b. c. The triumviri monetales had the whole superintend­ence of the mint, and of the money that was coined in it. A great number of coins, both of gold and


silver, is signed by these triumvirs in the fol­lowing manner: — III. VIR. AAAFF,-that is, triumvir auro, argento, aere flando feriundo (Cic. de Leg. iii. 3; P. Manut. ad Cic. ad Fam. vii. 13) or III. VIR. A.P.F. that is, ad pecumam feriimdam. Other coins on the other hand do not bear the signature of a triumvir monetalis, but the inscription CUR. X. FL. S. C. i. e. curator dena-riorum flandorum ex senatusconsulto, or are signed by praetors, aediles, and quaestors. Caesar not only increased the number of the triumviri mone­tales to four ; whence some coins of his time bear the signature IIII. VIR. A.P.F., but entrusted certain slaves of his own with the superintendence of the mint. (Suet. Caes. 76 ; compare Cic. Philip. vii. 1.) The whole regulation and management of the Roman mint and its officers during the time of the republic is involved in very great obscurity.

The coining of money at Rome was not a privi­lege belonging exclusively to the state, but from the coins still extant we must infer that everv


Roman citizen had the right to have his own gold and silver coined in the public mint, and under the superintendcruce of its officers. The individual or gens who had their metal coined, stated its name as well as the value of the coin. This was a kind of guarantee to the public, and nearly all the coins of the republican period coined by a gens or an in­dividual bear a mark stating their value. As long as the republic herself used pure silver and gold, bad money does not seem to have been coined by any one ; but when, in 90 B. c., the tribune Living Drusus suggested the expediency of mixing the silver which was to be coined with one-eighth of copper, a temptation to forgery was given to the people, and it appears henceforth to have occurred frequently. As early as the year 86 b. c. forgery of money was carried to such an extent, that no one was sure whether the money he possessed was genuine or false, and the praetor M. Marius Grati-dianus saw the necessity of interfering. (Cic. de Off. iii. 20.) He is said to have discovered a means of testing money and of distinguishing the good from the bad denarii. (Plin. //. N. xxxiii. 46.) In what this means consisted is not clear ; but some method of examining silver coins must have been known to the Romans long before this time. (Liv. xxxii. 2.) Sulla inflicted heavy punish­ment upon the coiners of false money ; his law ' remained in force during the empire, and not only false coining, but any crime connected with the deterioration of money, was gradually made to come under it. In the latest tunes of the empire false coining was treated as a crimen majestatis. All Roman money was generally coined at Rome, but in some particular cases the mints of other Italian towns, as in the provinces, were used ; for we must remember, that during the time of the republic, subject countries and provinces were not deprived of the right of coining their own money. This right they even retained under the empire for a long time, though with some modifications ; for while some places were allowed to coin their money as before, others were obliged to have upon their coins the head of the emperor, or of some member of his family. Silver and gold, however, were coined only in places of the first rank. When all Italy received the Roman franchise, all the Italians used the Roman money, and in conse­quence lost the right to coin their ov/n.

It has been stated above, that probably every

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