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On this page: Metatores – Metoeci – Metopa


either an alloy in general, or a particular kind of alloy), which some call opeixa^Kos ; and tyevddp-•yvpos is also found about Tmolus." In all pro­bability the stone here mentioned is the common z'mc ore called calamine, which Pliny and other writers call cadmium. If so, tyevSdpyvpos must be metallic zinc, and opei'xaA/cos brass. For a further discussion of this subject, into which we have not space to enter, the reader is referred to Beckmann, vol. ii. pp. 32, &c.

Respecting the use of metals for money, see nummus.

Only a few words are necessary on the word metallum in its other sense. Nearly all that is known on the subject of the Greek mines, the mode of working them, and the revenues derived from them is contained in Bockh's Essay on the Silver Mines of Laurion appended to his Public Economy of Athens. Respecting the Roman mines, see vectigalia. [P. S.]

METATORES. [castra, p. 240, a.]

METOECI (jueVoncoi), is the name by which, at Athens and in other Greek states, the resident aliens were designated, and these must be distin­guished from such strangers as made only a transi­tory stay in a place, for Harpocration (s, v.) ex­pressly mentions as a characteristic of a hztolkos, that he resided permanently in the place. No city of Greece perhaps had such a number of resident aliens as Athens, as none afforded to strangers greater advantages and conveniences, or a more agreeable mode of living. In the census instituted by Demetrius Phalereus (309 b. c.), the number of resident aliens at Athens was 10,000, in which number women and children were probably not included. (Athen. vi. p. 2/2.) These aliens were persons from all parts of Greece, as well as from barbarous countries, such as Lydians, Phrygians, and Syrians, or Attic freedmen [libertus (greek)], and these people had chosen Athens as their adoptive country, either on account of its resources for amusement and instruction, or on ac­count of the facilities it afforded for carrying on mercantile business. The latter class of persons seems to have been by far the most numerous. The jealousy with which the citizens of the ancient Greek republics kept their body clear of intruders, is also manifest in their regulations concerning aliens. However long they might have resided in Athens, they were always regarded as strangers, whence they are sometimes called £*Vots and to remind them of their position they had on some oc­casions to perform certain degrading services to the Athenian citizens. These services [hydriaphoria] were however in all probability not intended to hurt the feelings of the aliens, but were simply acts svmbolical of their relation to the citizens.


Aliens were not allowed to acquire landed pro­perty in the state they had chosen for their resi­dence, and were consequently obliged to live in hired houses or apartments (Demosth. pro Phorm. p. 946 ; Xen. de Vectig. ii. 2 ; Aristot. Oecon. ii. 2, 3 ; compare Bockh's Pub!. Econ. i. § 24), and hence the letting of houses was a subject of much speculation and profit at Athens. As the aliens did not constitute a part of the state, and were yet in constant intercourse and commerce with its members, every alien was obliged to select a citizen for his patron (rrpocrrdTrjs}^ who.was not only the mediator between them and the state, through whom alone they could transact any legal business



whether private or public, but was at the same time answerable (zyywr)TT)s) to the state for the conduct of his client. (Etymol. M. s. v. 3A.Trpoa~ra~ <riov.) On the other hand, however, the state allowed the aliens to carry on all kinds of industry and commerce under the protection of the law ; in fact at Athens nearly all business was in the handa of aliens, who on this account lived for the most part in the Peiraeeus. (Xen. de Vectig. c. 2, de Hep. Ath.i. 12.)

Each family of aliens, whether they availed them­selves of the privilege of carrying on any mercantilo business or not, had to pay an annual tax (/ueroi-kiov or £e*/t/ca) of twelve drachmae, or if the head of the family was a widow, of only six drachmae. (Bb'ckh, Pull. Econ. iii. § 7 ; Isaeus ap. Harpo-crat. s. v. Meroi/aoz/.) If aliens did not pay this tax, or if they assumed the right of citizens, and probably also in case they refused to select a pa­tron, they not only forfeited the protection of the state, but were sold as slaves. [aprostasiou dike.] In some cases, however, though they are of rare occurrence, aliens without having the isopolity, might become exempt from the fteToliciov (are'Aeta jueroi/a'ou) as well as from other obliga­tions. (Demosth. c. Aristocrat, p. 691 ; Plut. Vit. dec. Oral. p. 842 ; Demosth. c. Aristog. p. 787 ; Suidas, s. v. Merof/cioy.) Extraordinary taxes and liturgies (zlcrtyopai and Xzirovpyia.i) devolved upon aliens no less than upon citizens (Demosth. c. Androt. p. 612), though there must have been a difference between the liturgies performed by citi­zens and those performed by aliens. In what this difference consisted is nowhere expressly mentioned, but we have reason to believe that with the ex­ception of the trierarchy and gymnasiarchy, all other liturgies might devolve upon aliens, though perhaps only on certain occasions, as the choregia at the festival of the Lenaea. (Schol. ad Aristoph. Plut. 954: ; compare Bockb, PubL Econ. iv. § 10.) The extraordinary taxes (slfffyopai) which aliens had to pay, seem also in some degree to have dif­fered from those paid by citizens ; and it is clear from Demosthenes (c. Androt. p. 609 and 612), that they were taxed higher than citizens of the same census. The aliens were also obliged, like citizens, to serve in the regular armies and in the fleet, both abroad and at home, for the defence of the city. (Xen. de Vectig. I.e.; Thucyd. ii. 13, iv. 90 ; Demosth. c. Philip, i. p. 50 ; Thucyd. i. 143, iii. 16.) Respecting those /j.ctoikoi who had ob­tained the tVore'Aeia, see civitas (greek). The heirs of a /jt-eroiKos who died in Attica, were under the jurisdiction of the polemarch. (Demosth. <v Steph. ii. p. 1135.)

The preceding account of the condition of the aliens at Athens applies with very few modifica­ tions to most other parts of Greece. (Comparo Petitus, Legg. Att. ii. 5. p. 246, &c. ; F. A. Wolf, Proleg. ad Leptin. p. Ixvi. &c. ; Hermann, Polit. Ant. § 115.) [L. S.]

METOPA or METOPE (juercfcnj), the name applied to each of the spaces between the triglyphs in the frieze of the Doric order, and by metonymy to the sculptured ornament with which those spaces were filled up. In the original significance of the parts the triglyphs represent the ends of the cross-beams or joists which rested on the architrave ; the beds of these beams were called oTrcJ, and hence the spaces between them (Vitniv. iv. 2. § 4.) Originally they

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