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700

METALLUM.

of the earliest period were still to be seen in the time of Pausanias (//. xi. 634, xviii. 379 ; Pans. x. 1.6. § 1). The art of embossing, or fastening pieces of one metal on to the surface of another (e/AiraLcr-Titffy Te%^?7, is referred to several times in Homer (//. xi. 24, 35 ; Lobeck, ad Soph. Aj. 846, &c.). Gilding was commonly practised: one interesting example is the gilding of the horns of an ox about to be sacrificed. (Od. iii. 425, &c.) This passage furnishes a striking instance of the use of words connected with xaA/cos for working in any kind of metal: thus, the artificer is called by the generic term, %aA/ceus (432). as well as by the specific name, XPV(TOX°OS (425), and his tools are the orrAct x a/\/c ?}/;«, olffiv re xpvffbv eipya^Vro (vv. '133,4351 Lastly, the image used to describe the hissing of the burning stake when plunged in the eye of Polyphemus, shows an acquaintance with the process of dipping red-hot iron in water to harden it. (Od. xi. 351, eomp. Soph. Ai. 720.)

The advances made in the art of metallurgy in subsequent times are chiefly connected with the improvements in the art of statuary. The method of working, as described in Homer, seems to have long prevailed, namely by beating out lumps of the material into the form proposed, and afterwards fitting the pieces together by means of pins or keys. It was called (rtyvpfaaTov, from o-tyvpa, a hammer. Pausanias (iii. 17. § 6) describes this process in speaking of a very ancient statue of Jupiter at Sparca, the work of Learchus of Rhegium. With respect to its supposed antiquity, Pausanias can only mean that it was very ancient, and of the archaic style of art. The term (T(f)i>p7]\aros is used by Diodorus (ii. 9) in describing a very ancient golden table which was said to have decorated the cele­brated gardens of the palace of Ninus and Semiramis, at Babylon. Pliny (//. N~. xxxiii. 4. s. 24.) men­tions a golden statue of Diana Anaitis worked in the same way, which he calls liolospliyraton. A statue of Dionysius by Onassimedes, of solid bronze, is mentioned by Pausanias (ix. 12. § 3) as existing at Thebes in his time. The next mode, among the Greeks, of executing metal works seems to have been by plating upon a nucleus, or general form, of wood — a practice which was employed also by the Egyptians, as is proved by a specimen of their art preserved in the British Museum. The subject is a small head of Osiris, and the wood is still remaining within the metal. It is probable that the terms liolospliyraton and spliyraton were intended to designate the two modes of hammer-work ; the first on a solid mass, and the other ham­mering out plates. (Comp. malleus.)

It is extremely difficult to determine at what date the casting of metal was introduced, That it was known at a very early period there can be no doubt, although it may not have been exercised by statuaries in European Greece till a comparatively late date. The art of founding may be divided into three classes or stages. The first is the simple melting of metals either from the solid form, or from the ore ; the second, casting the fused metals into prepared forms or moulds ; and the thirda casting into a mould, with a core or internal nucleus, by which the metal may be preserved of a determined thickness. The first stage must have been known at a period of which we have no re­cord beyond a passage in the book of Job (xxviii. 1, 2), which establishes the fact that some of the processes of metallurgy, such as the reduction pf j

METALLUM.

gold, silver, iron, and copper from their ores, were well known when that book was composed. The casting of metal into moulds must also have been practised very early. There are no means of know­ing of what material or composition the forms or moulds were made, but in all probability clay (dried, and then perhaps baked) was employed for the purpose. The circumstance of a spot where clay abounded having been chosen for the founding ot the bronze works for the temple of Solomon sup­ports this supposition. (1 Kings, vii. 46). Of course all the earliest works produced in this stage of the art must have been solid. The third process, that of casting into a mould with a core, was an im­portant step in the statuary's art. Unfortunately there is no better record of the time, nor of the mode in which this was effected by the ancients, than the statements of Pausanias and Pliny, ac­cording to whom the art of casting in bronze and in iron was invented by Rhoecus and Theodoras of Samos, who probably lived in the sixth and fifth centuries before our era. (Pans. iii. 12. § 8, viii. 14 § 5 ; Plin. H. N. xxxv. 12. s. 43 ; Diet, of Biog. s. vv. Rhoecus., Tkeodorus.)

The ancients used something answering the pur­pose of a solder for fastening the different pieces of metal together ; but it is difficult to determine whether the term H.6\\7j<ns means a solder or only a species of glue. Pausanias distinctly speaks of it as something different from nails or cramps, and gives us the name of its inventor, Glaucus of Chios, who appears to have lived earlier than the Samian artists just referred to (Herod, i. 25 ; Paus. x. 16. § 1 ; Plut. de Def. Or. 47, p. 436 ; Diet, of Biog. s. #.). Pliny in like manner speaks of a solder under the title of plumbum argcnlarium {H. N. xxxiv. 17. s. 48). Many of the works in the British Museum, as well as in other collections, are composed of pieces of metal which have been joined together, but whether by clamps, rivets, or soldering, it is now impossible to determine accu­rately, on account of the rust about the edges of the plates. The modern practice of welding pieces of metal together seems to have been altogether un­known to the ancients.

Respecting the supply and use of metals in the historical period, little remains to be added to what has been said under aes, argentum, aurum, caelatura, electrum, statuaria, &c. Iron was found chiefly in Laconia and on the shores of the Black Sea, and was brought especially from Sinope. Stephanus Byzantinus, who mentions this fact, states the purposes for which the two sorts of iron were considered respectively better fitted (s. v. Aa.Ke$ai/JL&v). The whole subject of metals and metal-work is treated of by Pliny in the thirty-third and thirty-fourth books of his Historia Naturalis.

One point not yet noticed is the question, whether the ancients possessed a knowledge of zinc. That they rarely if ever used it as an alloy of copper is proved by the analysis of existing specimens of their bronze [aes] ; but that they were absolutely ignorant of it can easily be disproved. One of the most important passages on the subject is in Strabo (xiii. p. 610), who says that " in the neighbour­hood of Andeira (in the Troas) there is a certain stone which, on being burnt, becomes iron ; then, on being smelted with a certain earth, it distils tyevSdp-yvpos, and with the addition of copper it becomes what is called Kpapa. (which may mean

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