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MEDICUS.

either by Agathinus of Sparta, or his pupil Archi-genes.

It only remains to mention the principal medical authors after Hippocrates whose works are still extant, referring for more particulars respecting their writings to the articles in the Dictionary of Biography. Celsus is supposed to have lived in the Augustan age, and deserves to "be mentioned more for the elegance of his style, and the neatness and judiciousness of his compilation, than for any original contributions to the science of Medicine, Dioscoridcs of Anazarba, who lived in the first century after Christ, was for many centuries the greatest authority in Materia Medic a, and was almost as much esteemed as Galen in Medicine and Physiology, or Aristotle in Philosophy. Are- taeus, who probably lived in the time of Nero, is an interesting and striking writer, both from the beauty of his language, and from the originality of his opinions. The next in chronological order, and perhaps the most valuable, as he is certainly the most voluminous, of all the medical writers of anti­ quity, is Galen, who reigned supreme in all mat­ ters relating to his art till the commencement of modern times. He was born at Pergamus A. d. 131, came early in life to Rome, where he lived in great honour, and passed great part of his clays, and died A. d. 201. After him the only writers deserving particular notice are Oribasius of Per­ gamus, physician to the emperor Julian in the fourth century after Christ ; Aetius of Amida, who lived probably in the sixth century ; Alex­ ander Traliianus, who lived something later ; and Paulus Aegineta who belongs to the end of the seventh. [W. A. G.]

MEDICUS (<arp(J.s), the name given by the ancients to every professor of the healing art, whether physician or surgeon, and accordingly both divisions of the medical profession will here be included under that term. In Greece and Asia Minor physicians seem to have been held in high esteem ; for, not to mention the apotheosis of Aesculapius, who was considered as the father of it, there was a law at Athens that no female or slave should practise it (Hyginus, Fab. 274) ; Aelian mentions one of the laws of Zaleucus among the Epizephyrian Locrians, by which it was ordered that if any one during his illness should drink wine contrary to the orders of his physician, even if he should recover, he should be put to death for his disobedience (Par. Hist. ii. 37); and, according to Mead, there are extant several medals struck by the people of Smyrna in honour of different persons belonging to the medical pro­fession. (Dissertatio de Num-mis quibusdam a Smyrnaeis in Medicorum Ilonorem percussis, 4to. Lond. 1724.) If the decree of the Athenians (published among the letters of Hippocrates) be genuine, and if Soranus (in Vita Hippocr.) can be depended on, the same honours were conferred upon that physician as had before been given to Hercules; he was voted a golden crown, publicly initiated into the Eleusinian mysteries, and main­tained in the Prytaneum at the state's expense. (Compare Plin. //. N. vii. 37.)

As there were no hospitals among the ancients, the chief places of study for medical pupils were the 5A<r/cA?77aaa, or temples of Aesculapius, where the votive tablets furnished them with a collection of cases. The Asclepiadae [medicina] were very strict in examining into and overlooking the

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MEDICUS.

character and conduct of their pupils, and the famous Hippocratic oath (which, if not drawn up by Hippocrates himself, is certainly almost as ancient) requires to be inserted here as being the most curious medical monument of antiquity. " I swear by Apollo the physician, by Aesculapius, by Hygeia, and Panac-eia, and all the gods and goddesses, calling them to witness that I will fulfil religiously, according to the best of my power and judgment, the solemn promise and the written bond which I now do make. I will honour as my parents, the master who has taught me this art, and endeavour to minister to all his neces­sities. I will consider his children as my own bro­thers, and will teach them my profession, should they express a desire to follow it, without re­muneration or written bond. I will admit to my lessons, my discourses, and all my other-methods of teaching, my own sons, and those of my tutor, and those who have been inscribed as pupils and have taken the medical oath ; but no one else. I will prescribe such a course of regimen as may be best suited to the condition of my patients, according to the best of my power and judgment, seeking to preserve them from any­thing that might prove injurious. No induce* ment shall ever lead me to administer poison, nor will I ever be the author of such advice: neither will I contribute to an abortion. I will maintain religiously the purity and integrity both of my conduct and of my art. I will not cut any one for the stone, but will leave that operation to those who cultivate it. Into whatever dwellings I may go, I will enter them with the sole view of succouring the sick, abstaining from all injurious views and corruption, especially from any immodest action, towards women or men, freemen or slaves. If during my attendance, or even unprofessionally in common life, I happen to see or hear of any circumstances which should not be revealed, I will consider them a profound secret, and observe on the subject a religious silence. May I, if I rigidly observe this my oath, and do not break it, enjoy good success in life, and in [the practice of ] my art, and obtain general esteem for ever ; should I transgress and become a perjurer, may the reverse be my lot."

Some idea of the income of a physician in those times may be formed from the fact mentioned by Herodotus (iii. 131) that the Aeginetans (about the year e. c. 532) paid Democedes from the public treasury one talent per annum for his ser­vices, i. e. (if we reckon, with Hussey, Ancient Weights and Money, <#<?., the Aeginetan drachma to be worth Is. 3|^.) not quite 3441. • he after­wards received from the Athenians one hundred minae, i. e. (reckoning, with Hussey, the Attic drachma to be worth 9^.) rather more than 40G/., and he was finally attracted to Samos by being offered by Polycrates a salary of two talents, i. e. (if the Attic standard be meant) 48JI. 10s. It should however be added, that Valckenaer doubts the accuracy of this statement of Herodotus with respect to the Aeginetans and Athenians (and ap­parently with reason) on the ground that the latter people, at the time of their greatest wealth, only allowed their ambassadors two drachmae (or Is. 7%d.) per day, i.e. somewhat less than thirty pounds per annum. (Aristoph. Aclicwn. v. 66.) A physician, called by Pliny both Erasistratus (//. N. xxix, 3) and Cleombrotus (H, N, vii, 37), is saiti

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