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MAUSOLEUM.

reconciling the discrepancy between the total and partial heights), which pteron was surmounted by the pyramid ; the sculptures were of course 011 the frieze of the order. The other apparent discre­pancy between the lengths of the sides and fronts and the total circuit of the building can only be satisfactorily explained by supposing that it stood within an enclosure, or upon a platform of the larger dimensions, namely, 440 feet in peri­meter. When we come to the details of the arrangement of the parts, we find most writers giving the simple explanation, which most readers of Pliny would probably adopt at first sight, that the 36 columns, of which Pliny speaks, formed a single peristyle all round the building. (See, for example, the restoration in Hirt's GescJt. d. Ban-kunst, PI. x. fig. 14, PI. xxx. fig. 14.) To this view there are very formidable objections ; and another, which has not only the merit of being exceedingly ingenious, but the authority of a most accomplished architect, is proposed by Mr. Cockerel!, in Mr. Newton's Essay. Taking on the one hand Pliny's 63 feet as the length of the longer side of the peristyle, and on the other hand, calculating the dimensions of the order from the existing fragments of the frieze (which, in the case of a work of that period of Greek art, an architect can do with as much certainty as that with which Professor Owen can construct a di-nornis from a single thigh-bone), Mr. Cockerell arrives at the conclusion that the 36 pillars were arranged, in a single row of six columns on each front, and in a double row of eight on each side, at intercolumniations of 6 feet 8 inches, around a long narrow cella, corresponding in length to six of the columns of the peristyle, and in width to two. (See the plan and elevation in the Classical Museum^ I. c.)

The researches of the latest travellers furnish a strong hope that good elements for reconstructing the plan of the Mausoleum may be found among the fragments of columns which are scattered about the city of Budrum, and worked into its walls.

The building was still standing in the latter part of the fourth century after Christ (Gregor. Naz. Epigr. cxviii.), and even as late as the tenth ; but it shared at length, with Halicarnassus itself, in the almost total destruction which fell upon the cities of Asia Minor. For its subsequent history, the question of its site, and the chain of evidence which proves that the marbles now in the British Museum are the very reliefs with which Scopas and his rivals adorned the sepulchre of Mausolus, the reader is referred to the very interesting ac­count of these matters given in Mr. Newton's Essay. All that can here be stated is, that when the knights of Rhodes built the citadel of Hali­carnassus (Budruni), in the fifteenth century, or more probably when they strengthened its for­tifications in 1522, they used materials obtained from the ruins of the Mausoleum, and, among the rest, they worked into the inner wall of their for­tress some of the sculptured slabs which had formed its frieze. Various travellers, from Thevenot to the present time, have described these marbles, of which there is a sketch in the Ionian Antiquities of the Dillettanti Society (vol. ii. Supp. PI. ii.). At length our ambassador at Constantinople, Sir Stratford Canning, obtained the permission of the Porte for their removal, and in February, 1846, they were taken down and conveyed to England,

745

MEDICINA.

and are now deposited in the British Museum, under the name of the Budrum Marbles. They consist of thirteen slabs, of the uniform height of 3 feet including the mouldings, or 2 feet 51 inches without them, and varying in length from 2 feet 8 inches to 6 feet 11 inches. Their total length is 64 feet 11 inches, which is nearly the same a,a that of each longer side of the building; but they are evidently from different faces of it, as they cannot all be arranged in one continuous composition, though some of them are continuous, and they show traces of the hands of various artists. Their subject is the battle of Greek warriors with Amazons, which was as favourite a myth in Ionia and Caria as it was in Attica. Their style is considered by competent judges to be inferior to what we might have expected from artists of the school of Scopas and Prax­iteles ; but their close resemblance to another bas-relief of the same school, that of the choragic monument of Lysicrates, is admitted ; and the points in which they are alleged to be deficient are just those in which we recognise the inferiority of the later Attic school to the perfect art of Pheidias. The suggestion of Mr. Newton, that accident may have preserved to us, out of the whole frieze, the inferior works of Bryaxis, Leo-chares, and Timotheus, and not the better produc­tions of Scopas or Praxiteles, is not only inconsistent, as he himself remarks, with Pliny's statement that the sculptures were regarded as of equal merit ; but also, it is one of those gratuitous suppositions made to escape from a difficulty, which cannot be admitted without some positive proof.

In the Roman Mausolea the form chiefly em­ ployed was that of a succession of terraces in imitation of the rogus. Of these the most celebrated were those of Augustus and of Hadrian ; the latter of which, stripped of its ornaments, still forms the fortress of modern Rome (the Castle of S. Angelo); but of the other, which was on a still larger scale, and which was considered as one of the most magnificent buildings of Augustus, there are only some insignificant ruins. (Strabo, v. p. 236 ; Suet. Aug. 100 ; Nardini, Roma Antica, vol. iii. p. 75, ed. Nibby ; Hirt, Lehre d. Geb'dude, pp. 349— 351, and restoration of the monuments in PL xxx. fig. 21,23.) [P.S.]

MAZONOMUS (/Jiagoj'o/.ios, dim. ^ua^oj/o^tof, Athen. v. 30, 34), from /u.aC«, a l°afj °r a cake ; properly a dish for distributing bread: but the term is applied also to any large dish used for bringing meat to table. (Varro, de Re Rust. iii. 4.) These dishes were made either of wood (Pollux, vii. 87), of bronze (Athen. iv. 31), or of gold (Athen. v. 27). [J. Y.j

MEDIASTPNI, the name given to slaves, used for any common purpose, and are said by the Scholiast upon Horace (Ep. i. 14. 14) to be those " qui in medio stant ad quaevis imperata parati." The name is chiefly given to certain slaves belong­ing to the familia rustica (Cic. Cat. ii. 3 ; Colum. i. 9, ii. 13), but it is also applied sometimes to slaves in the city. (Dig. 4. tit. 9. s. 1. § 5, 7. tit. 7. s. 6.)

MEDICFNA (larpiKJi), the name of that science which, as Celsus says (de Medic, lib. i. Praefat.), " Sanitatem aegris promittit," and whose object Hippocrates defines (de Arte, vol. i. p. 7, ed. Kiihn) to be " the delivering sick persons from their disease, and the diminishing the force of

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