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MAGISTER.

freight only they had the well-known screw of Archimedes, an instrument which, for this parti­cular purpose, has never been surpassed. (Vitruv. x. 11; cochlea.) But their pumps were chiefly on the principle of those in which the water is lifted in buckets, placed either at the extremity of a lever, or on the rim of a wheel, or on a chain working between two wheels. (Vitruv. x. 9; antlia ; tympanum.)

3. Machines in wldcli water is the moving power. (Vitruv. x. 10 ; mola.)

4. Other applications of water, as to the mea­surement of time, and the production of musical sounds, in the clepsydra and the hydraulic organ. (Vitruv. ix. 5, 6, x. 13; hokol.ogium ; hy-

DHAULA.) [P. S.]

MAENIANUM, signified, originally, a pro­ jecting balcony, which was erected round the Ro­ man forum, in order to give more accommodation to the spectators of the gladiatorial combats, by the censor, C. Maenius, b.c. 318 (Festus, s. v. p. 135, ed. Mliller; Isidor. Orig. xv. 3. § 11) ; and hence balconies in general came to be called maeniana. Many allusions to such structures, and to the regu­ lations which were found necessary to keep them within due bounds, are found in the ancient writers (Cic. Acad. iv. 22 ; Non. p. 83. s. 65, Miill. ; Sueton. Calig. 18 ; Vitruv. v. 1 ; Plin. 77. N. xxxv. 10. s. 37 ; Val. Max.ix. 12. §7 ; Cod. Just. viii. 2. 20, 10. 11, xliii. 8. 2. § 6, 1. 16. 242. § 1 ; Amm. Marc, xxvii. 9, 10 ; see also amphitheatrum, p. 88, and circus, p. 286, a.) [P. S.J MAGADIS. [lyra, p. 721, a. ; musica.]

MAGISTER, which contains the same root as mag-is and mag-nus., was applied at Rome to per­ sons possessing various kinds of offices, and is thus explained by Festus (s. v. Magisterare) : — " M&,- gisterare^ moderari. Undo magistri nom solum doctores artium, sed etiam pagorum, societatum, vicorum, collegiorum, equitum dicuntur ; quia omnes hi magis ceteris possunt." Paulus (Big. 50. tit. 16. s. 57) thus defines the word : — " Quibus praecipua cura rerum incumbit, et qui magis quam ceteri diligentiam et sollicitudinem rebus, quibus praesunt, debent, hi magistri appellantur.'5 The following is a list of the principal magistri: — magister admissionum. [admissionales.]

magister armorum appears to have been the same officer as the Magister Militum. (Amm. Marc, xvi. 7, xx. 9.)

magister auctionis. [bonorum emptio.] magister bibendi. [symposium.] magister collegii was the president of a col­legium or corporation. [collegium.]

magister epistolarum answered letters on behalf of the emperor. (Orelli, Inscr. 2352.) magister equitum. [dictator, p. 407, b.] magister libellorum was an officer or secre­tary who read and answered petitions addressed to the emperors. [libellus, 4. c.] He is called in an inscription " Magister Libellorum et Cogiii-tionum Sacrarum." (Orelli, I. c.)

magister memoriae, an officer whose duty it was to receive the decision of the emperor on any subject and communicate it to the public or the persons concerned. (Amm. Marc. xv. 5, xxvii. 6.) magister militum, the title of the two offi­cers, to whom Constantine intrusted the command of all the armies of the empire. One was placed over the cavalry, and the other over the infantry.

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MAGISTRATUS.

On the divisions of the empire their number was increased, and each of them had both cavalry and infantry under his command. In addition to the' title si Magistri militumyWe find them called Magis­tri armorum^ equitum et peditum^ utriusque militias (Zosim. ii. 33, iv. 27 ; Vales, ad Amm. Marc. xvi. 7.) In the fifth century, there were in the

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Eastern empire two of these officers at court, and three in the provinces ; in the western empire, two at court, and one in Gaul. Under Justinian, a new magister militum was appointed for Armenia and Pontus. (Walter, Geschichte des Komischen Redits, § 342, 2d ed.)

magister navis. [exercitoria actio.]

magister officiorum, was an officer of high rank at the imperial court, who had the superin­tendence of all audiences with the emperor, and also had extensive jurisdiction over both civil and military officers. (Cod. 1. tit. 31 ; 12. tit. 16 ; Cod. Theod. 1. tit. 9 ; 6. tit. 9 ; Amm. Marc. xv. 5 ; xx. 2, xxii. 3 ; Cassiod. Variar. vi. 6.)

magister populi. [dictator.]

magister scriniorum, had the care of all the papers and documents belonging to the emperor. (Cod. 12. tit. 9 ; Spartian. AeL Ver. 4 ; Lamprid. Aleoa. Sev. 26.)

magister societatis. The equites, who farmed the taxes at Rome, were divided into com­panies or partnerships ; and he who presided in such a company was called Magister Societatis. (Cic, Verr. ii. 74, ad Fam. xiii. 9, pro Plancio, 13.)

magister vicorum. Augustus divided Rome into certain regiones and vici, and commanded that the people of each vicus should choose magistri to manage its affairs. (Suet. Aug. 30, Tib. 76 ; Orelli, Inscr. 5, 813, 1530.) From an inscription on an ancient stone referred to by Pitiscus (Lexicon, s. v.) it appears that there were four such magistri to each vicus. They were accustomed to exhibit the Ludi Compitalitii dressed in the praetexta. (Ascon. in Cic. Pison. p. 7, ed. Orelli.)

MAGISTRATUS. A definition of Magistra-tus may be collected from Pomponius, De Origine Juris (Dig. 1. tit. 2). Magistratus are those " qui juri dicundo praesunt." The King was originally the sole Magistrates ; he had all the Potestas. On the expulsion of tfee Kings, two Consuls were an­nually appointed and they were Magistratus. In course of time other Magistratus were appointed, so that Pomponius enumerates as the Magistratus of his time " qui in civitate jura reddebant," ten tribuni plebis, two consuls, eighteen praetors, and six aediles. He adds that the Praefecti Annonae et Vigilum were not Magistratus. The Dictator was also a Magistratus ; and the Censors; and the Decemviri litibus judicandis. The governors of Provinces with the title of Propraetor or Proconsul were also Magistratus. Gains attributes the Jus Edicendi to the Magistratus Populi Romani, with­out any • restriction ; but he says that the chief edictal power was possessed by the Praetor Urbanus and the Praetor Peregrinus, whose jurisdictio in the provinces was exercised by the Praesides of Provinces; and also by the Curule Aediles whose jurisdiction in the Provinciae Populi Romani was exercised by the Quaestors of those Provinces.

The word Magistratus contains the same element as mag(ister) and mag(nus) ; and it signifies both the persons and the office, as we see in the phrase " se magistratu abdicare," which signifies to give up the office before the time at which it regularly

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