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43) which happened in b.c. 459 and 214. In these cases the lustrum was not performed on account of some great calamities which had befallen the republic.
The time when the lustrum took place has been very ingeniously defined by Niebuhr (Hist, of Rom. i. p. 277). Six ancient Romulian years of 304 days each were, with the difference of one day, equal to five solar years of 365 days each, or the six ancient years made 1824 days, while the five solar years contained 1 ^25 days. The lustrum, or the great year of the ancient Romans (Censorin. de Die Nat-. 18), was thus a c}rcle, at the end of which, the beginning of the ancient year nearly coincided with that of the solar year. As the coincidence however was not perfect, a month of 24 days was intercalated in everv eleventh lustrum.
No\v it is highly probable that the recurrence of such a cycle or great year was, from the earliest times, solemnized with sacrifices and purifications, and that Servius Tullius did not introduce, them, but merely connected them with his census, and thus set the example for subsequent ages, which however, as we have seen, was not observed with regularity. At first the irregularity may have been caused by the struggles between the patricians and plebeians, when the appointment of censors was purposely neglected to increase the disorders ; but we also find that similar neglects took place at a later period, when no such cause existed. (Sueton. Aug. 37, Claud. 16.) The last lustrum was solemnized at Rome, in A. D. 74, in the reign of Vespasian. (Censorin. /, c.)
Many writers of the latter period of the republic and during the empire, use the word lustrum for any space of five years, and without any regard to the census (Ovid. Fast. ii. 183, iv. 701, Amor. iii. 6. 27 ; Horat. Carm. ii. 4. 24, iv. 1. 6), while others even apply it in the sense of the Greek pen-taeteris or an Olympiad, which only contained four years. (Ovid, ex Pont. iv. 6. 5, &c. ; Mart. iv. 45.) Martial also uses the expression lustrum ingens for saeculum.
(Compare Scaliger, de Emend. Tempor. p. 183 ; Ideler, Handb. der Chronol. ii. p. 77, &c.) [L. S.J
LYCAEA (Awccua), a festival with contests, celebrated by the Arcadians in honour of Zeus sur-named a.vkcuos. It was said to have been instituted by the ancient hero L^ycaon, the son of Pelasgus. (Paus. viii. 2. §1 ; Strab. viii. p. 3b8.) He is also said, instead of the cakes which had formerly been offered to the god, to have sacrificed a child to Zeus, and to have sprinkled the altar with its blood. It is not improbable that human sacrifices were offered in Arcadia to Zeus Lycaeus down to a very late period in Grecian history. (Porphyr. de Ab-stin. ii. 27.) No further particulars respecting the celebration of the Lycaea are known, with the exception of the statement of Plutarch (Caes. 61), that the celebration of the Lycaea in some degree resembled that of the Roman Ltipercalia. [L. S.J
LYRA (Aupa, Lat. fides), a lyre, one of the most ancient musical instruments of the stringed kind. There can scarcely be any doubt that this and similar instruments were used by the Eastern nations and by the Egyptians, long before the Greeks became acquainted with them, and that they were introduced among the Greeks from Asia Minor. (Wilkinson's Manners and Cust. of the Anc* Egypt, ii/pp.272, 288, &c.) The Greeks them-
selves however attributed the invention of the lyre to Hermes, who is said to have formed the instrument of a tortoise-shell, over which he placed gut-strings. (Plom. Hymn.inMerc.; Apollod. iii. 10. § 2; Diodor. v. 75 ; Serv. ad Virg. Georg. iv. 464.) As regards the original number of the strings of a lyre, the accounts of the ancients differ so widety, that it is almost impossible to arrive at any definite conclusion. Diodorus (i. 16) states that Hermes gave his lyre three strings, one with an acute, the other with a grave, and the third wiih a middle sound. Macrobius (Sat. i. 19) says that the lyre of Mercury had four strings, which symbolically represented the four seasons of the year ; while Lucian (Deor. Dial. 7), Ovid (Fast. v. 106), and others, assume that the lyre from the first had seven strings. All ancient writers who mention this invention of Hermes, appty it to the name tyra, though its shape in this description of Apollod orus and Servius rather resembles that of the instrument which in subsequent times was designated \tj the name cithara (KiQapa or KiQapis\ and in some degree resembled a modern guitar, in as far as in the latter the strings were drawn across the sounding bottom, whereas in the lyra of later times they were free on both sides. In the Homeric poems the name At»/oa does not occur, with the exception of the Homeric hymn to Hermes ; and from the expression which occurs in this hymn (423), \vpr) KiQapi&iv, it appears that originally there was very little or no difference between the two instruments, that is to say, the instrument formerly used was a cithara in the later sense of the word.
The instruments which Homer mentions as used to accompany songs are the tyopfjuyl- and ici8apt.s. (II. \. 603, - Od. viii. 248 and 261.) Now that the <f)6puiy£ and the KiQapis were the same instrument, appears to be clear from the expression (f)6p-uiyyt KiQapi&iv, and KiOapi (pop^i^iv. (Od. i. 153, &c.) The lyra is also called %eAus, or %€Act>i>?7, and in Latin testudo, because it was made of a tortoise-shell.
The obscurity which hangs over the original number of strings of the lyre, is somewhat removed by the statement made by several ancient writers, that Terpander of Antissa (about b. c. 600) added to the original number of four strings three new ones^ and thus changed the tetrachord into a heptachord. (Euclid. Introd. Harm. p. 19 ; Strab. xiii. p. 618 ; Clem. Alex. Strom. vi. p. 814, ed. Potter),