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also presided over the TrdXrj. Theseus is said by Pausanias (i. 39. §3) to have been the first who reduced the game of wrestling to certain rules, and to have thus raised it to the rank of an art; whereas before his time it was a rude fight, in which bodily size and 'strength alone decided the victory. The most celebrated wrestler in the heroic age was Heracles. In the Homeric age wrestling was much practised, and a beautiful de­scription of a wrestling match is given in the Iliad (xxiii. 710, &c.; compare Od. viii. 103, 12.6, 246 ; Hesiod, Scut, Here. 302, where ij.&x*lv €A/eij82>j> signifies the TrciATj). During this period wrestlers contended naked, with the exception of the loins, which were covered with the Trepi^co/xoc (//. xxiii. 700), and this custom remained throughout Greece until 01. 15, from which time the perizoma was no longer used, and wrestlers fought entirely naked. (Thucyd. i. 6, with the Schol.; Paus. i. 44. § 1; Dionys. vii. 72.) In the Homeric age the custom of anointing the body for the purpose of wrestling does not appear to have been known, but in the time of Solon it was quite general, and was said to have been adopted by the Cretans and Lacedaemonians at a very early period. (Thucyd. /. c.; Plat, de Re Publ. v. p. 452.) After the body was anointed, it was strewed over with sand or dust, in order to enable the wrestlers to take a firm hold of each other. At the festival of the Sthenia in Argos the iraXy was accompanied by flute-music. [sthenia.]

When two athletae began their contest, each might use a variety of means to seize his antagonist in the most advantageous manner, and to throw him down without exposing himself (Ovid. Met. ix. 33, &c. ; Stat. Theb. vi. 831, &c. ; Heliodor. Aetliiop. x. p. 235) ; but one of the great objects was to make every attack with elegance and beauty, and the fight was for this as well as for other purposes regulated by certain laws. (Plat, de Leg. viii. p. 834 ; Cic. Oral. 68 ; Lucian, Anach. 24 ; Aelian. V. PI. xi. 1.) Striking, for instance, was not allowed, but pushing an antagonist back­ward (w6kff'/Ji6s} was frequently resorted to. (Plut. Symp. ii. 5 ; Lucian, Anach. 1. 24.) It is pro­bably on account of the laws by which this game was regulated, and the great art which it re­quired in consequence, that Plutarch (Symp. ii. 4) calls it the Te^viK^Tarov Kal iravovpj6ra/rov t&v aflATj/xarcoz/. Bat notwithstanding these laws, wrestling admitted of greater cunning and more tricks and stratagems than any other game, with the exception of the pancratium (Xen. Cyrop. i. 6. § 32) ; and the Greeks had a great many technical terms to express the various stratagems, positions, and attitudes in which wrestlers might be placed. Numerous scenes of wrestlers are represented on ancient works of art. (Krause, p. 412, &c. ; see woodcut in pancratium.)

The contest in wrestling was divided by the an­cients into two parts, viz. the ird\rj opO)) or opOla (6p9o(rrd^f]p TraAcu'eii/), that is, the fight of the athletae as long as they stood upright, and the aAiVSrjcm or Kv\i(ris (lucta volutatorid), in which the athletae struggled with each other while lying on the ground. Unless they contrived to rise again, the a\iv8r)(ns was the last stage of the contest, which continued until one of them acknowledged himself to be conquered. The Trd\t] opOr) appears to have been the only one which was fought in the times of Homer, as well as afterwards in the great national games of the Greeks; and as soon as one


athlete fell, the other allowed him to rise and con­tinue the contest if he still felt inclined. (Plat, de Legg. vii. p. 796 ; Corn. Nep. Epam. 2 ; Lucian, Lexiph.. 5.) But if the same athlete fell thrice, the victory was decided, and he was not allowed to go on. (Senec. de Benef, v. 3 ; Aeschyl. Agam.-\l\ ; Anihol. Gr. vol. ii, p. 406, ed. Jacobs.) The a\iv$7]cris was only fought in later times, at the smaller games, and especially in the pancratium. The place, where the wrestlers contended, was ge­nerally soft ground, and covered with sand. (Xen. Anab. iv. 8. § 26 ; Lucian, Anach. 2.) Effeminate persons sometimes spread large and magnificent carpets on the place where they wrestled. (Athen. xii. p. 539.) Each of the various tribes of the Greeks seem to have shown its peculiar and na­tional character in the game of wrestling in some particular trick or stratagem, by which it excelled the others.

In a diaetetic point of view the aXivdrjffis wag considered beneficial to the interior parts of the body, the loins, and the lower parts in general, but injurious to the head ; whereas the ird\7) bpQj]

was believed to act beneficially upon the upper parts of the body. It was owing to these salutary effects that wrestling was practised in all the gym­ nasia as well as in the palaestrae, and that in 01. 37 wrestling for boys was introduced at the Olympic games, and soon after in the other great games, and at Athens in the Eleusinia, and Thesea also. (Paus. v. 8. § 3, iii. 11. § 6 ; Pind. Ol viii. 68 ; Gell. xv. 20; Plut. Symp. ii. 5.) The most renowned of all the Greek wrestlers in the historical age was Milon of Croton, whose name was known throughout the ancient world. (Herod; iii. 137 ; Strab. vi. p. 262, &c. ; Diodor. xii. 9.) Other distinguished wrestlers are enumerated by Krause (p. 135, &c.), who has also given a very minute account of the game of wrestling and every thing connected with it, in his Gymnastik und Agon* d. Hell. pp. 400—439. [L. S.]

LUDI is the common name for the whole variety of theatrical exhibitions, games and contests, which were held at Rome on various occasions, but chiefly at the festival of the gods ; and as the ludi at cer­tain festivals formed the principal part of the so­lemnities, these festivals themselves are called ludi. Sometimes, however, ludi were also held in honour of a magistrate or of a deceased person, and in this case the games may be considered as ludi privati, though all the people might take part in them.

All ludi were divided by the Romans into two classes, viz. ludi circenses and ludi scenici (Cic. de Leg. ii. 15), accordingly as they were held in the circus or in the theatre ; in the latter case they were mostly theatrical representations with their various modifications ; in the former they consisted of all or of a part of the games enumerated iri the articles circus and gladiatores. Another di­vision of the ludi into stati, imperativi, and votivi, was made only with regard to religious festivals, and is analogous to the division of the feriae. [feriae.]

The superintendence of the games and the so­ lemnities connected with them was in most cases intrusted to the aediles. [AEDILES.] If the law­ ful rites were not observed in the celebration of the ludi, it depended upon the decision of the pontiffs whether they were to be held again (instaurari) or not. An alphabetical list of the principal ludi is subjoined. . [L. S.]

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