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On this page: Lophos – Lorarii – Lorica


order to steal the clothes of the bathers ( in Horn. I. c.), but used in a more general sense to denote thieves and highwaymen of all classes. From the same root was formed the verb e/cA&>7n'- &W, meaning, to take off ike amictus, to denude. (Soph. Trachin. 925.) [J. Y.J

LOPHOS (Ao>s). [galea.]

LORARII. [flagrum.]

LORICA (3-c£pa£), a cuirass. The epithet \tvoQ<*>pr)^ applied to two ligbt-armed warriors in the Iliad (ii. 529, 830 ; Schol. ad foe.), and op­posed to %aA/co%iTa)^, the common epithet of the Grecian soldiers, indicates the early use of the linen cuirass. It continued tQ be worn to much later times among the Asiatics, especially the Per­sians (Xen. Cyrop. vi. 4. § 2 ; Plut. Aleoe. p. 1254, ed. Steph.), the Egyptians' (Herod, ii. 182, iii. 47), the Phoenicians (Paus. vi. 19. § 4), and the Chalybes. (Xen. Anab. iv. 7. § 15.) Iphicrates endeavoured to restore the use of it among the Greeks (Nepos, Ipliic. i, 4), and it was occasion­ally adopted by the Romans, though considered a much less effectual defence than a cuirass of metal. (Sueton. Gaiba, 19 ; Arrian, Tact, p. 14, ed. Blancardi.)

A much stronger material for cuirasses was horn, which was applied to this use more especially by the Sarmatae and Quadi, being cut into small pieces, which were planed and poMsfeed a-nd fas­tened, like feathers, upon linen shirts. (Amm. Marcell. xvii. 12. ed. Wagner.) Hoofs were em­ployed for the same purpose. Pausanias (i. 21. § 8) having made mention of a thorax preserved in the temple of Aesculapius at Athens, gives the following account of the Sarmatians : — Having vast herds of horses, which they sometimes, kill for food or for sacrifice, they collect their hoofs, cleanse and divide ther% and shape them like the scales of a serpent ((£>oAicn j/) ; they then bore them and sew them together, so that the scales overlap one another, and in general appearance they re­semble the surface of a green fir-cone. This author adds, that the loricae made of these horny scales are much more strong and impenetrable than linen cuirasses, which are useful to hunters, but not adapted for fighting. The annexed woodcut, taken from Meyrick's Critical Inquiry into Ancient Armour (plate iii.) exhibits an Asiatic cuirass ex­actly corresponding to this description. It consists of slices of some animal's hoof, which are stitched together, overlapping each other in perpendicular rows, without "being fastened to any under gar­ment. The projection nearest the middle must be



supposed to have been worn over the breast, and the other over the back, so as to leave two vacant spaces for the arms.

This invention no doubt preceded the metallic scale armour. The Rhoxalani, a tribe allied to the Sarmatians, defended themselves by wearing a dress consisting of thin plates o| iron and hard leather, (Tacit. Hist. i. 79.) T&e Persians wore a tunic of the same description^ the scales being sometimes of gold (Herod, vii. 61 ; &c*>p'r]Ka xpv-ffzov Ae7n5wTo*>, ix. 22) ; but they were commonly of bronze (fhoracaindutus aeyiis squamis, Virg. Aen. xi. 487). The basis of the cuirass was sometimes a skin, or a piece of strong linen to which the metallic scales, or "feathers^" as they are also called, were sewed. (V'irg. A&&. xi. 770 ; Serv. in iog. ; Justin, xli. 2. ]jQ>.)

The epithet AeTnScoTo's-, as applied to a thorax, is opposed to the epithet ^oAiScorfo. (Arrian, Tact. p. 13, 14.) The former denotes a similitude to the scales of fish (Xeiricnv), the latter to the scales of serpents (^oAurii/). The resemblance to the scales of serpents, which are long and narrow, is exhibited on the shoulders of the Roman soldier in the woodcut at page 136. These scales were imitated by long flexible bands of steel, made to fold one over another according to the contraction of the body. They appear very frequently on the Roman monuments of the times of the emperors, and the following woodcut places in immediate contrast a &d>pa£ Ae7ri5coT<$y on the right and $o\L$oi)T6s on the left, both taken from Bartoli's Arcu.s

The Roman hastati wore cuirasses of chain-mail, i. e. hauberks or habergeons (aAv<nd&jToi/s &<*>pa-Kas, Polyb. vi. 21 ; Athen. v. 22 ; Arrian, I. c.}. Virgil several times mentions hauberks in which the rings, linked or hooked into one another, were of gold (loricam consetiam hamis, auroque triUcem* Virg. Aen. iii. 467, v. 259, vii. 639).

In contradistinction to the flexible cuirasses, or coats of mail, which have now been described, that commonly worn by the Greeks and Romans, more especially in the earlier ages, was called &c*>pa£ crraSios, or errarJs, because, when placed upon the ground on its lower edge, it stood erect. In con­sequence of its firmness it was even used as a seat to rest upon. (Paus. x. 27. § 2.) It consisted principally of the two 7uaAa, viz. the "breast-plate (pectorale) made of hard leather or of bronze, iron, or sometimes the more precious metals, which covered the breast and abdomen (Horn. II. v. 99, xiii, 507,587, xvii. 314) ; and of the correspond-

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