Scanned text contains errors.
(I. c.) says that the librarii copied both old and new books, while the antiquarii copied only old books. Becker (Gallus, vol. i. p. 164), however, thinks that, when the cursive character came into general use, the name of antiquarii was applied to the copyists who transcribed books in the old uncial character. The name of librarii was also given to those who bound books (Cic. ad Alt. iv. 4), and to those who had the care of libraries.
2. Librarii a studiis were slaves who were employed by their masters when studying to make extracts from books, &c. (Orell. Inscr. 719; Suet. Claud. 28 ; Cic. ad Fain, xvi. 21.) To this class the notarii, or short-hand writers, belonged, who1 could write down rapidly whatever their masters-dictated to them. (Plin. Ep. iii. 5; Martial, xw.
3. Librarii ab epistolis, whose principal duty was to write letters from their master's dictation^ (Orelli, Inser. 2437, 299 7r &e.; Becker, Gallus., vol. i. p. 180.) To this class belonged the slaves called ad manum, a manu, or amamienses. [amanuensis.]
LIBRATOR is in general a person who examines things by a libra ; but the name wasy in particular, applied to two kinds of persons.
1. Librator aqitae, a person whose knowledge was indispensable in the construction of aquae-ducts, sewers, and other structures for the purpose of conveying a fluid from one place to another. He examined by a hydrostatic balance (libra aquaria] the relative heights of the places from and to which the water was to be conducted. Some persons at Rome made this occupation their business, and were engaged under the curatores aquapumy though architects were also expected to be able to act as libratores. (Plin. Epist. x. 50 ; Frontin. deAquaed. 105 ; compare Vitruv. viii. 6 ; Cod. 10. tit. 66. s. 1.)
2. Libratores in the armies were probably sol diers who atta-ckex! the enemy by hurling with their own hands (librand'o) lances or spears against them. (Tacit. Ann. ii. 20, xiii'. 39; in'both these passages some MSS. have libritores.) Lipsius (ad Tacit. Ann. I. c.) thinks that the libratores were men who threw darts or stones against the enemy by means of machines, tormenta (compare his Po~ liorcet. iv. 3).- But this supposition can. seareely be supported by any good authority. During the time of tbe republic libratores are not mentioned in the Roman ar-inies. [L. S.]
LIBURNA, LIBU'RNICA. [NATis.]
LICHAS (AiXas). [PES.]
LICIA, LICIATO'RIUM. [tela.]
LICTOR, a public officer, who attended on the chief Roman.' magistrates. The number which waited on the different magistrates is stated in the article fa-sges^.
The office of lictor is said to have been derived by Romulus from the Etruscans. (Liv. i. 8.) The etymology of the' name is doubtful ; Gellius- (xri1. 3) connects it with the verb ligare, because the lictors had to> bind the hands and feet of criminals before they were punished. The lictors went before the magistrates, one by one in a line ; he who went last or next to the magistrate was called proximus lictor, to whom the magistrate gave his commands (Liv. xxiv. 44; Sail. Jug. 12 ; Cic. Verr. v. 54, de Div. i. 28 ; Orelli, Inscr. 3218), and as this lictor was always the principal one, we
also find him called primus lictor (Cic. ad Quint, i, 1. § 7), which expression some modern writers have erroneously supposed to refer to the lictor who went first.
The Iktors had to inflict punishment on those who were condemned, especially in the case of Roman citizens (Liv. ii. 5, viii. 7); for foreigners and slaves were punished by the carnifex ; and they also probably had to assist in some cases in the execution of a decree or judgment in a civil suit. The lietors also commanded (animadverterunt) persons to pay proper respect to a magistrate passing by, which consisted in dismounting from horseback, uncovering the head, standing out of the way, &c. (Liv. xxiv. 44 ; Sen. Ep. 64.)
The lietors were originally chosen from the plebs (Liv.. ii. 55)? bu't afterwards appear to have been generally freedmen, probably of the magistrate on whom they attended. (Comp. Tacit. Ann. xiii. 27.)
Lictors were properly only granted to those magistrates who had the Imperium. Consequently the tribunes of the plebs never had lictors (Plut. Quaest. Rom. 81), nor several of the other magistrates. Sometimes, however, lictors were granted to persons as a mark of respect or for the sake of protection. Thus by a law of the Triumvirs every Vestal virgin was accompanied by a lictor, whenever she v/ent out (Dion Cass. xlvii. 19), and the honour of one or two lictors was usually granted to the wives and other female members of the Imperial family. (Tacit. Ann. i. 14, xiii. 2.)
There were1 also thirty lictors called Lictores Ciwiaiiy who&e- duty it was to summon the curiae to the Gomitia curiata ; and when these meetings became little more than a form, their suffrages were represented by the thirty lictors. (Gell. xv. 27 ; Cic. Agy;. if. 12 ; Orelli, Inscr. 2176, 2922, 3240.)
LIGO (Si/ceAAa or ^a/ceAAa) was a hatchet formed either of one broad iron or of two curved iron prongs,, which was used by the ancient hus bandmen to clear the fields from weeds. (Ovid, ex Pont. i. 8. 59 ; Mart. iv. 64 ; Stat. Theb. iii. 589; Colum. x. 89.) The ligo seems also to have been used in digging the soil and breaking the clods. (Hor. Cavm.. iii. 6. 38, Epist. i. 14. 27 ; Ovid, Amor. iii. 10. 31 ; compare Dickson, On the Hus bandry of the Ancients, i. p. 415.) [L. S.]
LFGULA, a Roman measure of fluid capacity, containing one-foasth of the cyathus. (Columella, R. R. xii. 21 ; Plink. H. N. xx. 5. s. 18.) . It signifies- a spoonful, like cochlear; only the ligula was larger than the cochlear. The spoon which was called ligula, or lingukt, (dim. of lin gua} from its shape,- was used for various purposes, especially to clean out small and narrow vessels, and to ea£ jellies and suxjli things. (Cato, R. R. 84 ; Colum. ix. 5 ; PI!m H. N. xxi. 14. s. 49 ; Martial, viii. 33. 23. 71. 9, xiv. 120; Becker, Gallu's, ii. p. 156.) The word is also used for the leather tongue of-a shoe (Poliux, ii. 109, vii. 80; Festus s. w.). [P. S.]
LIMA, a file, was made of iron or steel, for the purpose of polishing metal or stone, and appears to have been of the same form as the instruments used for similar purposes in modern times. (Plin. H. N. xxxvii. 8. s. 32, ix. 35. s. 54 r xxviii. 9. s. 41; Plaut. Menaech. i. 1. 9.) [L. S.]
LIMBUS (irapv^fy, the border of a tenic (Corippus, de Laud. Just. ii. 117) or a scarf. (Virg,
z z 2