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s. 2. § 2). It was lenocinium, if a husband al- | Jo wed his wife to commit adultery in order to share the gain. The legislation of Justinian (Nov. 117. c. 9. § 3) allowed a wife a divorce, if her husband had attempted to make her prostitute herself ; and the woman could recover the dos and the donatio propter nuptias. It was leiiocimum in the husband if he kept or took back (comp. Sue ton. Domit. 8) a wife whom he had detected in an act of adultery ; or if he let the adulterer who was detected in the act, escape ; or if he did not prosecute him.
With respect to other persons than the husband, it was lenocinium by the lex Julia, if a man mar ried a woman who was condemned for adultery ; if a person who had detected others in adultery, held his peace for a sum of money ; if a man com menced a prosecution for adultery and discontinued it ; and if a person lent his house or chamber for aclulteri,um or stuprum. In all these cases, the penalty of the lex Julia was the same as for adulte- rimn and stuprum. The lex in this as in other like instances of leges, was the groundwork of all subsequent legislation on lenocinium. Probably no part of the lex Julia de adulteriis was formally repealed, but it received additions, and the penal ties were increased. (Ilein, Criminalrecht der ftomer, p. 883.) As to the uses of the words Leno, Lenocinium, in the classical writers, see the passages cited in Facciolati, Lex. [G. L.]
LENUS (\-nv6s). [ToiicuLAR.]
LEONIDEIA (AewiSeTa), were solemnities celebrated every year at Sparta in honour of Leonidas, who, with his 300 Spartans, had fallen at Thermopylae. Opposite the theatre at Sparta there were two sepulchral monuments, one of Pau- sanias and another of Leonidas, and here a funeral oration was spoken every year, and a contest was held, in which none but Spartans were allowed to take part. (Pans. iii. 14. § 1.) [L. S.j LEPTON. [chalcous ; obolos.]
LEPTURGI (AeTTToypyof), a class of nrtificers, respecting whom there is some doubt. They are commonly supposed to be carvers of fine work in wood ; but, on the authority of two passages (Pint. Aemil. Paul. 37 ; Diod. xvii. 115), in the former of which ropeveiv Kal actttovpyeiv are mentioned together, Raoul-Rochette supposes that the Lepturyi were those who beat out gold and silver in thin leaves to cover statues and furniture ; and that they corresponded to the Bractearii Arti fices among the Romans. (Lettre a M. Schorn, pp. 180, 191.) [P. S.]
LERNAEA (Aepz/cua), were mysteries (reAer^) celebrated at Lerna in Argolis, in honour of De- meter. (Paus. ii. 36. § 7.) They were said to have been instituted by Philammon. (Paus. ii. 37. §3.) In ancient times the Argives carried the fire from the temple of Artemis Pyronia, on Mount Crathis, to the Lernaea. (Pans. viii. 15. § 4.) These mysteries were probably a remnant of the ancient religion of the Pelasgians, but further particulars are not known. [L. S.]
LESCIJE (AeV^), is an Ionic word, signifying council or conversation, and a place for council or conversation. There is frequent mention of places of public resort, in the Greek cities, by the name of AeV^ai, some set apart for the purpose, and others so called because they were so used by loungers ; to the latter class belong the agora and its porticoes, the gymnasia, and the shops of vari-
ous tradesmen, especially those of the smiths, which were frequented in winter on account of their warmth, and in which, for the same reason, the poor sought shelter for the night. (Horn. Od. xviii. 329 ; lies. Op. 491, 499.) In these passages, however, in which are the earliest examples of the use of the word, it seems to refer to places distinct from the smiths' workshops, though resorted to in the same manner; and we may gather from the grammarians, that there were in the Greek cities numerous small buildings or porticoes, furnished with seats, and exposed to the sun, to which the idle resorted to enjoy conversation, and the poor to obtain warmth and shelter, and which were called AeV%cu: at Athens alone there were 360 such. (Eustath. ad Horn. 1. c. ; Proclus, ad lies. L g. ; Hesych., Etym. Mag., s. v. ; Kiihn, ad Ad. V. H. ii. 34.) Suidas, referring to the passage in Hesiod, explains A€<r%i7 by k&imvqs.
By Aeschylus (Eum. 3G6) and Sophocles (Ant. 1 GO) the word is used for a solemn council ; but elsewhere the same writers, as well as Herodotus, employ it to signify common conversation.
In the Dorian states the word retained the meaning of a place of meeting for deliberation and intercourse, a council-chamber or club-room. At Sparta every pliyle had its lesclie, in which and in tli3 gymnasium the elders passed the greater part of the day in serious and sportive conversation, and in which the new-born children were presented for the decision of the elders as to whether they should be brought up or destroyed. (Plut. Lye. *16, 25 ; Miiller, Dor. iii. 10. § 2, iv. 9. § 1.) Some of these Spartan Icsc/iae seem to have been halls of some architectural pretensions : Pausanias mentions two of them, the AeVx?7 Kpo-to.v&v) and the AeVx?? Troi/a'A?? (iii. 14. § 2, 15. § 8). They were also used for other purposes. (Atli. iv. p. 138, e.)
There were generally chambers for council and conversation, called by this name, attached to the temples of Apollo, one of whose epithets was Aecrx?jj/0pios- (Harpocrat. s. v. ; Plut. de El a}>. Dclph. p. 385, b. ; Miiller, Dor. ii. 2. § 15, note). Of such lesckae the chief was that which was erected at Delphi by the Cnidians, and which was celebrated throughout Greece, even less for its own magnificence, than for the paintings with which it was adorned by Polygnotus. (Paus. x. 25; Bot- tiger, Arch'dol. d. Malerei, p. 29G, &c. ; Did. of Bioq. s. v. Polygnotus.) [P. S.]
LEUCA or LEUGA. [?es.]
LEX. Lex is defined by Papinian (Dig. 1. tit. 3. s. 1) : — "Lex est commune praeceptum, virorum prudentium consul turn, deiictorum, qiuie | sponte vel ignorantia con trail untur, coercitio, com- inunis reipublicae sponsio." Cicero (de Leg. i. 6) defines it thus: — " Quae scripto sancit quod vult, aut jubendo, aut vetando." (See also de Leg. ii. 16.) A Law is properly a rule or command of the sovereign power in a state, published in writing, and addressed to and enforced upon the members of such state ; and this is the proper sense of Lex in the Roman writers.
In the Institutes (1. tit. 2. s. 4) there is a definition of a Lex, which has a more direct reference to that power which is the source of law: — " Lex est quod Populus Romanus senatorio magistratu interrogante, veluti Consule, constituebat.1' The definition of Capito (Gell. x. 20) is " Generale JLissum populi aut "plebis rogunte magistratu;1'