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On this page: Lembus – Lemniscus – Lemuralia – Lemures – Lenaea – Leno

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LEMNTSCUS.

they were performed were also divided into \eirovp-yiat TToAmKdf, such as were incumbent upon citizens, and \etrovpyiai twv jueToi'/ccoj'. (l)e-mosth. c. Lept. p. 462.) The only liturgies which are mentioned as having been performed by the juerotKoi, are the choregia at the festival of the Lenaea (Schol. ad Aristoph. Plut. 954), and the eoTiacns (Ulpian, ad Demosth Lept. § 15), to which may be added the hydriaphoria and skiade-phoria. [hydriaphoria.]

That liturgies were not peculiar to Athens, has been shown by Bockh (Pub. Econ. &c. p. 299), for choregia and other liturgies are mentioned at Siphnos (Isoerat. Aeginet. c. 17) ; choregia in Aegina even before the Persian Avars (Herod, v. 83) ; in Mytilene during the Peloponnesian war (Antiph. de Caed. Herod, p. 744) ; at Thebes in the time of Epaminondas (Plut. Aristld. 1) ; at Orchomenos, in Rhodes, and in several towns of Asia Minor. (Compare Wolf, Prolegom. in De­ mosth. Lept. p. Ixxxvi. £c. ; Wachsmuth, vol. ii. p. 92, &O [L. S.]

LEMBUS, a skiff or small boat, used for carry­ing a person from a ship to the shore. (Plant. Merc. i. 2. 81, ii. 1. 35.) The name was also given to the light boats which Avere sent ahead of a fleet to obtain information of the enemy's move­ments. (Isidor. Grig. xix. 1 ; Liv. xxxi. 45, xlv. 10.) Pliny (//. N. vii. 56. s. 57) attributes their invention to the inhabitants of Gyrene.

LEMNISCUS (\i\nviffKos). This word is said to have originally been used only by the Syracu-sans. (Hesych. s. v.) It signified a kind of co­loured ribbon which hung doAvn from crowns or diadems at the back part of the head. (Fest. s. v.) The earliest croAvns are said to haA7e consisted of Avool, so that Ave have to conceive the lemniscus as a ribbon Avound around the avoo! in such a manner that the two ends of the ribbon, where they met, Avere alloAved to hang down. See the representa­tions of the corona obsidionalis and civica in p. 359, Avhere the lemnisci not only appear as a means to keep the little branches of the crowns together, but also serve as an ornament. From the remark of Servius (ad Aen. v. 269) it appears that coronae adorned Avith lemnisci Avere a greater distinction than those \vithout them. This serves to explain an expression of Cicero (paJma lemniscata, pro Rose. Am. 35) Avhere palma means a victory, and the epithet lenmiscata indicates the contrary of infamis, and at the same time implies an honour­able as Avell as lucrative victory. (Comp. Auson. Epist. xx. 5.)

It seems that lemnisci were also worn alone and Avithout being connected Avith crowns, especiall\r by ladies, as an ornament for the head. (Plin. H.N. xxi. 3.) To show honour and admiration for a person, floAvers, garlands, and lemnisci Avere sometimes shoAvered upon him \vhile he Avalked in public. (Casaub. ad Suet. Ner. 25 ; Liv. xxxiii. 19.)

Lemnisci seem originally to have been made of Avool, and aftenvards of the finest kinds of bast {philyrae, Plin. //. N. xv. 14) ; but during the latter period of the republic the wealthy Crassus not only made the foliage or leaves of crowns of thin sheets of gold and silver, but the lemnisci likewise ; and P. Claudius Pulcher embellished the metal lemnisci Avith works of art in relief and Avith inscriptions. (Plin. II. N. xxi. 3.)

The \vord lemniscus is used by medical writers in the signification of a kind of liniment applied to

LENO.

Avounds. (Celsus, vii. 28 ; Veget. de lie Veler. ii 14 and 48, iii. 18.) [L.S.]

LEMURALIA or LEMU'RIA, a festival for the souls of the departed, Avhich Avas celebrated at Rome every year in the month of May. It avus said to have been instituted by Romulus to ap­ pease the spirit of Remus Avhom he had slain (Ovid. Fast. v. 473, &c.), and to have been called originally Remuria. It Avas celebrated at night and in silence, and during three alternate days., that ig, on the ninth, eleventh, and thirteenth of May. Daring this season the temples of the gods were closed, and it AAras thought unlucky for women to marry at this time and during the Avhole month of May, and those Avho ventured to marry Avere believed to die soon after, Avhence the proverb, mensG Maio malae nulent. Those Avho celebrated the Lemuralia, Avalked barefooted, Avashed their hands three times, and threw nine times black beans behind their backs, believing by this cere­ mony to secure themselves against the Lemures. (Varro, Vita pop. Rom. Fragm. p. 241, ed. Bipont; Servius, ad Aen. i. 276.) As regards the solemnities on each of the three days, avc only know that on the second there Avere games in the circus in honour of Mars (Ovid. Fast. v. 597), and that on the third day the images of the thirty Argei, made of rushes, Avere thrown from the pons sublicius into the Tiber by the Vestal virgins. (Ovid. Fast. v. 621 ; Fest. s. v. Depontani ; com­ pare ar.gei.) On the same day there Avas a fes­ tival of the merchants (festum mercatorum^ Ovid. Fast. v. 670, &c.), probably because on this day the temple of Mercury had been dedicated in the year 495 b.c. (Liv. ii. 21.) On this occasion the merchants offered up incense, and by means of a laurel-branch sprinkled themselves and their goods with Avater from the Avell of Mercury at the Porta Capena, hoping thereby to make their business prosper. [L. S.]

LEMURES. See Did. of Gr. and Rom. Bio­graphy and Mythology.

LENAEA. [DiONYsiA, p. 411, b.]

LENO, LENOCI'NIUM. Lenocinium is defined by Ulpian (Dig. 3. tit. 2. s. 4) to be the keeping of female slaves for prostitution and the profits of it ; and it Avas also lenocinium if gain was made in the like way by moans of free women. Some lenones kept brothels (lupanaria) or open houses for prostitution. This trade Avas not for­bidden, but the praetor's edict attached infamia to such persons [!nfamia]. In the time of Caligula (Sueton. Cat. 40, and the notes in Burmann's ed.), a tax was laid on lenones. Theodosius and Valentinian endeavoured to prevent parents from prostituting their children and masters their female slaves by severe penalties ; and they forbad the practice of lenocinium under pain of corporal punishment, and banishment from the city, and so forth. Justinian (Nov. 14) also attempted to put doAvn all lenocinium by banishing lenones from the city, and by making the owners of houses, Avho allowed prostitution to be carried on in them, liable to forfeit the houses and to pay ten pounds of gold: those Avho by trickery or force got girls into their possession and gave them up to prostitu­tion were punished Avith the " extreme penalties ; " but it is not said Avhat these extreme penalties were. This Novella contains curious matter.

The Lex Julia de Adulteriis defined the leno­cinium Avhich that lex prohibited (Dig. 48. tit. 6,

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