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legatio libera was abused to a very great extent. Cicero, therefore, in his consulship endeavoured to put an end to it, but owing- to the opposition of a tribune, he onhr succeeded in limiting the time of its duration to one year. (Cic. de Leg. iii. 8, de Leg. Ayr. i. 3, pro Flacc. 34, Philip. \. 2.) Julius Caesar afterwards extended the time during which a senator might avail himself of legatio libera to five years (Cic. ad Alt. xv. 11), and this law of Caesar (Lex Julia) seems to have remained in force down to a very late period. (Suet. Tiber. 31; Dig. 50. tit. 7. s. 14.) [L.S.]
LEGIS ACTIO. [Ac-no.]
LEGITIMA HEREDITAS. [heres.]
LEIPOMARTYRIOU DIKE (tenropapTv-piov 81/07). [martyria.]
LEIPONAUTIOU GRAPHE (Kcivovavriov ypa<prj). The indictment for desertion from the fleet was preferred before the tribunal of the stra- tegi; and the court which undtr their superintend ence sat for the trial of this and similar military offences was composed of citizens who had been engaged in the expedition in question. (Meier, Atl. Proc. pp. 108,133.) The penalty upon conviction seems to have been a fine, and the complete dis- franchisemcnt of the offender and his descendants. (Petit, Leg. Att, pp. 401, 667.) [J. S. M.]
LEIPOSTRATIOU GRAPHE (\etvoarrpa- riov ypa(j>7]). The circumstances of the trial for desertion from the army and the penalties inflicted upon conviction were the same as in the case of de sertion from the fleet [leiponautiou graphe], and the offence was also punishable by an eisan- gelia, which, Heraldus suggests, would be fre quently adopted when the accuser was solicitous to impose silence upon a political opponent by pro curing his disfranchisement, as this was a necessary consequence of judgment being given against the defendant, and prevented his speaking or appearing in public. The eisangelia in such case would be preferred before the assembly of the people, by which, if reasonable cause appeared, it would be submitted to the decision of one of the ordinary legal tribunals. (Herald. Animad. in Salmas. p. 242.) [J. S. M.]
LEITURGIA (\€irovpyia, from AetToj/, lun. \T]iTQV) i. e. ^r\fji6ffiov^ or, according to others, Trpvra.ve7ov\ is the name of certain personal services which at Athens and in some other Greek republics, every citizen, who possessed a certain amount of property, had to perform towards the state. These personal services, which in all cases were connected with considerable expense, occur in the historv of Attica as earlv as the time of the
Peisistratids (Aristot. Oeconom. ii. 5), and were probably, if not introduced, at least sanctioned by the legislation of Solon. They were at first a natural consequence of the greater political privileges enjoyed by the wealthy, who, in return, had also to perform heavier duties towards the republic ; l3iit when the Athenian democracy was at its height, the original character of these liturgies became changed, for as every citizen now enjoyed the same rights and privileges as the wealthiest,
they were simply a tax upon property connected with personal labour and exertion (rots xp^fJLaa'1 Kctl r<$ <r&f.iaTi Aetrou/ryeu/). Notwithstanding this altered character of the liturgies, we scarcely ever find that complaints were made by persons subject to them ; many wealthy Athenians, on the contrary, ruined their estates by their ambitious exertions, and by the desire to gain the favour of the people. (Xen. de Itep. Atli.i. 13 ; Demosth. c. Eneryet. p. 1155 ; compare Lys. pro Ion. Alcib. p. 646 and 657 ; Isocrat. de Big. 15 ; Aristot. Polit. v. 7, p. 173, ed. Gottling.) To do no more than the law required (&(f)o<nov(r6ai, Isaeus, de Apollod. c. 38) was at Athens considered as a disgrace, and iii some cases a wealthy Athenian, even when it was not his turn, would volunteer to perform a liturgy. (Demosth. c. Mid. p. 519, 566, &c. ; compare Bockh, Pub. Econ. of Athens, p. 448, &c., 2d ed.)
All liturgies may be divided into two classes: 1. ordinary or encyclic liturgies (eyKVK\ioi Aeirovp-yicu, Demosth. c. Lept. p. 463), and 2. extraordinary liturgies. The former were called encyclic, because they recurred every year at certain festive seasons, and comprised the x°pny'La< yvftvciariapxfa, AajUTTctSapxia, apxifaatpla, and e<rna<m, which are all described in separate articles, f choregus ; gymnasium ; lampadephoria ; theoria ; hestiasis.] Every Athenian who possessed three talents and above, was subject to them (Demosth. c. Apltob. p. 833 ; Isaeus, de Pyrrli. hered. c. 80), and they were undertaken in turns by the members of every tribe who possessed the property qualification just mentioned, unless some one volunteered to undertake a liturgy for another person. But the law did not allow any one to be compelled to undertake more than one liturgy at a time (Demosth. c. Lept. p. 462, c. Polydet. p. 1209), and he who had in one year performed a liturgy, was free for the next (eVmurSi/ StaAnrobj/ fKao-ros AetToupye?, Demosth. c. Lept. p. 450), so that legally a person had to perform a liturgy only every other year. Those whose turn it was to undertake any of the ordinary liturgies, were always appointed by their own tribe (Demosth. c. Mid. pp. 510, 510), or in other words, by the eVijUeA^ra} rwv (pvhwv (Tittmann, Griecli. Staatsv. p. 2.96, &c.), and the tribe shared praise as well as blame with its Xtirovpyos.
The persons who were exempt from all kinds of liturgies were the nine archons, heiresses, and orphans until after the commencement of the second year of their coining of age. (Lysias, c. Dioyeit. p. 908 ; Demosth. de Symmor. p. 182.) Sometimes the exemption from liturgies (dreAeia) was granted to persons for especial merits towards the republic. (Demosth. c. Lept. p. 466, &c.)
The only kind of extraordinary liturgy to which the name is properly applied, is the trierarchy (rpi'/ipapXLa} ; in the earlier times, however, the service in the armies was in reality no more than an extraordinary liturgy. [See eisphoka and trierarchia. | In later times, during and after the Peloponnesian war, when the expenses of a liturgy were found too heavy for one person, we find that in many instances two persons combined to defray the expenses of a liturgy (orwreAeia). Such was the case with the choregia and the trierarchv. (Hermann, Polit. Ant. § 161. n. 12 and 13.)"
Liturgies in regard to the persons by whom
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