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On this page: Latbunculi – Latrocinium

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LATINITAS.

terms he merely designates the Latini Coloniarii hereafter mentioned. The emendation of Niebuhr is therefore not supported by these passages of Pliny, and though ingenious, it ought perhaps to be rejected ; not for the reasons assigned by Mad-vig, which Savigny has answered, but because it does not appear to be consistent with the whole context of Gams.

The new Latini had not the connubium ; and it is a doubtful question whether the old Latini had it.~ The new Latini had the commercium.

This new Latinitas, which was given to the Transpadani, was that legal status which the Lex Junia Norbana gave to a numerous class of freed-men, hence called Latini Juniani. (Gaius, i. 22, iii. 56; Ulp. Frag. tit. i.) The date of this lex is not ascertained ; but it is fixed with some pro­bability at A. U. C. 772. {Latini Juniani, by C. A. Von Vangerow, Marburg, 1833.)

The Latini Coloniarii, who are mentioned by Ulpian (Frag. xix. s. 4), are the inhabitants of towns beyond Italy, to whom the Latinitas was given. These are the towns which Pliny calls " oppida Latinorum veterum," and enumerates with the "op­pida civium Romanorum•" (iii. 3), which were military colonies of Roman citizens. The passages in which the Latini Coloniarii are mentioned, as a class then existing, must have been written before Caracalla gave the Civitas to the whole empire. ' These, which are the views of Savigny on this difficult subject, are contained in the Zeitselirift^ vol. ix. Der Rom. Vblksschluss der Tafel von Heraclea.

The Latini could acquire the Jus Quiritium, ac­cording to Ulpian (Frag. tit. iii. De Latinis\ in the following ways: — By the Beneficium Princi-pale, Liberi, Iteratio, Militia, Navis, Aedificium, Pistrinum ; and by a Senatus-consultum it was given to a female " vulgo quae sit ter enixa." These Various modes of acquiring the civitas are treated in detail by Ulpian, from which, as well as the connection of this title " De Latinis" with the first title which is " De Libertis," it appears that he only treated of the modes in which the civitas might be acquired by those Latini who were Li-berti. The same remark applies to the observa­tions of Gains (i. 28) on the same subject (Quibus modis Latini ad Civitatem Romanam perveniani). In speaking of the mode of acquiring the civitas by means of Liberi, Gains speaks of a Latinus, that is, a Libertus Latinus, marrying a Roman citizen, or a Latina Coloniaria, or a woman of his own con­dition, from which it is clear that all his remarks under this head apply to Liberti Latini ; and it also appears that Gains speaks of the Latini Colo­niarii as a class existing in his time. Neither Ulpian nor Gaius says any thing on the mode by which a Latinus Coloniarius might obtain the Civi­tas Romana.

Savigny's opinions on the nature of the La­ tinitas are further explained in the eleventh number of the Zeitschrift (Nachtr'dge zu den frulieren Arbeiteri). Richard of Cirencester, in his work De Situ Britanniae, speaks of ten cities in Britain, which were Latio jure donatae; and this is a complete proof, independent of other proofs, that Richard compiled his work from genuine materials. The expression " Latium Jus" could not be invented by a monk, and he here used a genuine term, the full import of which lie certainly could not understand. See also Civis, libjsrtus, manumissio. [G. L.]

LATRUNCULI.

LATROCINIUM, LATRO'NES. Armed persons, wbo robbed others abroad on the public roads, or elsewhere, were called Latrones^ and their crime Latrocinium. Murder was not an essential part of the crime, though it was frequently an ac­companiment. (Sen. deBen. v. 14 ; Festus, p. 118, ed. Mtiller ; Dig. 49. tit. 15. s. 24, 50. tit. 16. s. .118.) Under the republic, Latrones were appre­hended by the public magistrates, such as consuls and praetors, and forthwith executed (Liv. xxxix. 29, 41). By the Lex Cornelia, de Sicariis of the dictator Sulla, they were classed with sicarii, and punished with death, and this law continued in force in the imperial period (Paulus, v. 23 ; Dig. 48. tit. 19. s. 28. § 15 ; Sen. de Clem. ii. 1, Epist. 7 ; Petron. 91). The Grassatores were another kind of robbers, who robbed people in the streets or roads. The name seems to have been originally applied to those robbers, who did not carry arms, and who followed their trade alone. They appear to have been classed with the sicarii by the Lex Cornelia ; and if they used arms or were united with others in committing the robbery, they were punished in the same manner as latrones (Cic. de Fato, 15 ; Suet. Oct. 32 ; Dig. 48. tit. 19. s. 28. § 10). Comp. Rein, Das Criminalrecht der R'6mer9 pp. 424—426.

LATBUNCULI (wefftrol, ^<$>oi\ draughts. The invention of a game resembling draughts was attributed by the Greeks to Palamedes (abacus, § 5). The game is certainly mentioned by Homer, who represents the suitors of Penelope amusing themselves with it. (Od. i. 107.) Others ascribed the invention to the Egyptian The nth (Plat. Phaedr. p. 274 d.) ; and the paintings in Egyptian tombs, which are of far higher antiquity than any Grecian monuments, not unfrequently represent persons employed in this recreation. The paint­ing, from which the accompanying woodcut is taken, is on a papyrus preserved in the Museum of Antiquities at Leyden, and was probably made about 1700 years b.c. It is remarkable that a man is here represented playing alone ; whereas not only in works of Egyptian art, but also on Greek painted vases, we commonly observe two persons playing together. For this purpose there

were two sets of men, one set being black, the other white or red. Being intended to represent a miniature combat between two armies, they were called soldiers (milites, Ovid. Trist. ii. 477), foes (Jiostes), and marauders (latrones, dim. latrunculi^ Ovid. Art. Amat. ii. 208, iii. 357 ; Mart xtw

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