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4'Agincourt, Rec. de Fragmens, pp. 82—88.) It has been observed by several antiquaries, that these imprints upon bricks might throw considerable light upon the history and ancient geography of the places where they are found. Mr. P. E. Wiener has accordingly traced the 22nd legion through a great part of Germany by the bricks which bear its name. {De Leg. Rom. vie. sec., Darmstadt, 1830, p. 106—137.) In Britain many Roman bricks have been found in the country of the Silures, especially at Caer-leon, with the in­scription LEG. II. AVG. stamped upon them. (Arcliaeologia, v. p. 35.) The bricks, frequently discovered at York, attest the presence there of the 6th and 9th legions. (Wellbeloved's Eburacum, pp. 13, 34, 118).

The term laterculus was applied to various pro­ ductions of the shape of bricks, such as pastry or confectionery (Plant. Poen. i. 2. 115 ; Cato, de Re Rust. 109) ; and for the same reason ingots of gold and silver are called lateres. (Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 17.) [J. Y.]

LATERNAor LANTERNA (m*/o'<r,Aristoph. Pax, 841 ; Pherecrates, p. 26. ed. Runkel ; Au-X^ouxos, Phrynichus, Edog. p. 59 ; in later Greek, (f>av6s, Athen. xv. 58 ; Philox. Gloss.*), a lantern. Two bronze lanterns, constructed with nicety and skill, have been found in the ruins of Herculaneum and Pompeii. One of them is re­presented in the annexed woodcut. Its form is cylindrical. At the bottom is a circular plate of metal, resting on three balls. Within is a bronze lamp attached to the centre of the base and pro­vided with an extinguisher, shown on the right hand of the lantern. The plates of translucent horn, forming the sides, probably had no aperture ; but the hemispherical cover may be raised so as to admit the hand and to serve instead of a door, and it is also perforated with holes through which the Bmoke might escape. To the two upright pillars supporting the frame-work, a front view of one of which is shown on the left hand of the lantern, chains are attached for carrying the lantern by means of the handle at the top.

We learn from Martial's epigrams (xiv. 61, 62) that bladder was used for lanterns as well as horn. Some centuries later glass was also substituted. (Isid. Orig. xx. 10.) The most transparent horn lanterns were brought from Carthage. (Plaut. Aid. iii. 6. 30.) When the lantern was required for use, the lamp was lighted and placed within it.



(Pherecrates, p. 21.) It was carried by a slave (Plaut. Amphitr. Prol. 149, i. 1. 185 ; Val. Max. vi. 8. § 1), who was called the laternarius. (Cic. in Pis. 9.) [J. Y.J LATICLA'VII. [clavus.]


LATINITAS, LA'TIUM, JUS LA'TII (rb ahov}j.tvov AareTor, Strab. p. 186, Casaub.; Aartov 5tKcuoz>, Appian, B. C. ii. 26.) All these expressions are used after the Social war to signify a certain status intermediate between that of Gives and Peregrini. The word " Latinitas" occurs in Cicero (ad Alt- xiv. 12), where he is speaking of the La­ tinitas being given to the Siculi after Caesar's death. Before the passing of the Lex Julia de Civitate, Latini were the citizens of the old towns of the Latin nation, with the exception of those which were raised to the rank of municipia: it also comprehended the coloniae Latinae. There were before the Lex Julia only two classes, Gives and Peregrini; and Peregrini comprehended the Latini, Socii, and the Provinciales, or the free sub­ jects of the Romans beyond the limits of Itah'. About the year b.c. 89, a Lex Pompeia gave the Jus Latii to all the Transpadani, and the privilege of obtaining the Roman civitas by having filled a magistratus in their own cities. To denote the status of these Transpadani, the word Latinitas was used, which since the passing of the Lex Julia had lost its proper signification ; and this was the origin of that Latinitas which thenceforth existed to the time of Justinian. This new Latinitas or Jus Latii was given to whole towns and countries ; as for instance by Vespasian to the whole of Spain (Plin. Hist. Nat. iii. 4) ; and to certain Alpine tribes (Latio donati, Id. iii. 20). Hadrianus gave the Latium (Latium dedit) to many cities. (Spart. Hadrian. 21).

This new Latinitas was given not only to towns already existing, but to towns which were founded subsequently to the Lex Pompeia, as Latinae Co­loniae ; for instance Novum-Comum, which was founded B. c. 59 by Caesar. (Appian, 23. C. ii, 26.) Several Latin towns of this class are men­tioned by Pliny, especially in Spain.

Though the origin of this Latinitas, which makes so prominent a figure in the Roman jurists, is cer­tain, it is not certain wherein it differed from that Latinitas Avhich was the characteristic of the Latini before the passing of the Julia Lex. It is however clear that all the old Latini had not the same rights, with respect to Rome ; and that they could acquire the civitas on easier terms than those by which the new Latinitas was acquired. (Liv. xli. 12.) Accordingly the rights of the old Latini might be expressed by the term Majus Latium, and those of the new Latini by the term Minus Latium, according to Niebuhr's ingenious emenda­tion of Gains (i. 96). The Majus Latium might be considered to be equivalent to the Latium An-tiquum and Vetus of Pliny (iv. 22) ; for Pliny, in describing the towns of Spain, always describes the proper colonies as consisting " Civium Roma-norum," while he describes other towns as consist­ing sometimes "Latinorum" simply, and sometimes " Latinorum veterum," or as consisting of oppidani " Latii veteris ;" from which an opposition be­tween Latini Veteres and Latini simply might be inferred* But a careful examination of Pliny rather leads to the conclusion that his Latini Ve­teres and Latini are the same, and that by these

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