Scanned text contains errors.
an ordinary article of dress among the poorer classes. (Becker, Gallus, vol. ii. p. .99.)
5. Nonius defines it to be " vestimentum militare quod supra omnia vestimenta sumitur," but quotes no authority except Virg. Aen. iv. 262. [W. B.]
LAMPADEPHORIA (AajtwroS^opfe), torch-learing (as Herodotus calls it), or Aa^TraSfjSpo^a, torch-race (as some lexicographers), also Aa/x7ra-§oi>xos aycav, and often simply Aa/X7ray, was a game common no doubt throughout Greece ; for though all we know concerning it belongs to Athens, yet we hear of it at Corinth, Pergamus, and Zerinthus (Bockh, PuU Econ. of Athens, p. 463, 2nd ed.; Muller, Minerv. Polios, p. 5) ; and a coin in Mionnet, with a Xa^irds on it, which is copied below, bears the legend 'AutynroXir&v.
At Athens we know of five celebrations of this game: one to Prometheus at the Prometheia (Schol. ad Aristoph. Ran. 131 ; Ister. ap. Plarpocr. s. v.} ; a second to Athena at the Panathenaea * (Herod, vi. 105, and IL cc.) ; a third to Hephaestos at the Hephaesteiaf (Herod, viii. 9, and II. cc.} ; a fourth to Pan (Herod, v. 105);a fifth to the Thra-cian Artemis or Bendis. (Plat, de Rep. p. 328, a.) The three former are of unknown antiquity; the fourth was introduced soon after the battle of Marathon ; the last in the time of Socrates.
The race was usually run on foot, horses being first used in the time of Socrates (Plat. I. c.) ; sometimes also at night. (Interp. vetus ad Lucret. ii. 77. ap. Wakef.) The preparation for it was a principal branch of the yvuvaariapxia, so much so indeed in later times, that Aa^TraSapxfa seems to have been pretty much equivalent to the yv^vacri-apx'ta>. (Aristot. Pol. v. 8. 20.) The gymnasiarch had to provide the Xa/jurrds, which was a candlestick with a kind of shield set at the bottom of the socket, so as to shelter the flame of the candle; as is seen in the following woodcut, taken from a coin in Mionnet (pi. 49. 6.) He had also to provide for the training of the runners, which was of no slight consequence, for the race was evidently a severe one (compare Aris-toph. Vesp. 1203, Ran. 1085), with other expenses, which oil the whole were very heavy, so that Isaeus (de Philoct. Haered. p. 62. 20) classes this office with the %opt]yia and rpiypapxta, and reckons that it had cost him 12 minae. The discharge of this office was called yv/jij/ao-iapx^ ActywraSi (Isaeus, 1. c.), or ei> tcus \a/jiird<n yv^va-<nap%e?(r0cu (Xen. de Vectig. iv. 52). The victorious gymnasiarch presented his \a/j,Trds as a votive offering (dvafo^a, Bockh, Inscr. No. 243, 250).
As to the manner of the Aa^TraS^opia, there are some things difficult to understand. The case stands thus. We have two accounts, which seem contradictory. — First, it is represented as a course, in which a \auirds was carried from one point to
* Probably the greater Panathenaea. (Bockh, vli supr.)
•f" The ceremony at the Apaturia was different
another by a chain of runners, each of whom formed a successive link. The first, after running a certain distance, handed it to the second, the second in like manner to the third, and so on, till it reached the point proposed. Hence the game is used by Herodotus (viii. 98) as a comparison whereby to illustrate the Persian ayyapfyw, by Plato (Leg. p. 776, b.) as a living image of sue? cessive generations of men,' as also in the well-known line of Lucretius (ii. 77.)
" Et quasi cursores vital lampada tradunt."
(Compare also Auctor, ad Herenn. iv. 46.) And it is said that the art consisted in the several runners carrying the torch unextinguished through their respective distances, those who let it go out losing all share of honour. Now, if this were all, such explanation might content us. But, secondly, we are plainly told that it was an ay&v, the runners are said a^iXXaa-dai (Plat. Rep. I. e.) ; some are said to have won (vittav Aa,u,7raSf, Andoc. in Alcib. ad fin. j compare Bockh, Insc. No. 243, 244) ; the Schol. on Aristoph. Ran. (I. c.) talks of tovs vcrTarovs rpe'^oi/ras, \vhich shows that it must have been a race between a number of persons ; the Schol. on the same play (v. 133) speaks of afyeivai tovs SpOjite'as, Tobs rpe%oz/Tas, which shows that a number must have started at once.
This second account implies competition. But in a chain of runners, each of whom handed the torch to the next man successively, where could the competition be ? One runner might be said to lose—-he who let the torch out; but who could be said to win ?
We offer the following hypothesis in answer to this question. Suppose that there were several chains of runners, each of which had to carry tho torch the given distance. Then both conditions would be fulfilled. The torch would be handed along each chain, — which would answer to the first condition of successive delivery. That chain in which it travelled most quickly and soonest reached its destination would be the winner,—• which would answer to the second condition, it being a race between competitors.
In confirmation of this hypothesis we observe as follows: — The inscription in Bockh, No. 245, consists of the following lines : —
veiK'fjo'as o'vv e<f)'f]€ois rV & av&
This Eutychides was no doubt the gymnasiarch who won with the €<pr]€oi he had trained, just as Andocides (I. c.) talks of his veviKyKevai Xa/jLirdSt as gymnasiarch; so too Inscr. No. 250 records a like victory of the tribe Cecropis.* Now we know that the gymnasiarchs were chosen one from each tribe. If then each furnished a chain of \a}jma$'r}<$)6-po/, there .would have been ten (in later times twelve) chains of runners. Perhaps, however, the gymnasiarchs were not all called on to perform this service, but each once only in the year, which would allow us for each of the three greater celebrations
No. 244 gives a list of ol
fta, the winners in the torch-race, fourteen in number. Who were these ? If the several links of the winning chain, it is rather against analogy that they should be named. No one ever heard the names of a chorus; yet they can hardly be fourteen winning gymnasiarchs.