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652

JUGUM.

was used for a square measure of surface, the jV gerum.,\>y a natural analogy, became the double of the actus quadratus; and that this new meaning of it superseded its old use as the double of the single actus. The uncial division [As] was ap­ plied to the jugerum, its smallest part being the scrupulum of 10 feet square, =100 square feet. Thus ihej'tigerum contained 288 scrupula. (Varro, R. R. I. c.) The jugerum was the common mea­ sure of land among the Romans. Two jugera formed an heredium^ a hundred heredia a centuria, and four centuriae a saltus. These divisions were derived from the original assignment of landed property, in which two jugera were given to each citizen as heritable property. (Varro, I.e.; Nie- buhr, Hist, of Rome, vol. ii. pp. 156, &c., and Ap­ pendix ii.) [P. S.]

JUGUM (&ybs9 &ybv\ signified in general that which joined two things together. It denoted more especially,

1. In architecture any cross beam (Vitruv. x. 8. 19).

2. The transverse beam which united the up­right posts of a loom, and to which the warp was attached. (Ovid. Met. vi. 55.) [tela]

3. The transverse rail of a trellis (Varro, de Re Rust. i. 8 ; Col. de Re Rust. iv. 17, 20, xii. 15, Geopon. v. 29), joining the upright poles (perticae^ X'apa/ces) for the support of vines or other trees. [capistrum.] Hence by an obvious resemblance the ridges uniting the tops of mountains were called juga montium. (Virg. Ed. v. 76 ; Flor. ii. 3, 9, 17, iii. 3.)

4. The cross-bar of a lyre. (Horn. 77. ix. 187.)

5. A scale-beam, and hence a pair of scales [libra], The constellation Libra was conse­quently also called Jugum. (Cic. Div. ii. 47.)

6. The transverse seat of a boat. (Aeschyl. Again. 1608 ; Soph. Ajax, 247 ; Virg. Aen. vi. 411.) This gave origin to the term fyyirys, as applied to a rower. A vessel with many benches or banks for the rowers was called vqvs iro\v£vyos or eKaro&yos. (Horn. //. iii. 293, xx. 247.)

7. The yoke by which ploughs and carriages were drawn. The yoke was in many cases a straight wooden plank or pole laid upon the horses' necks ;. but it was commonly bent to­wards ea.ch extremity, so as to be accommodated to the part of the animal which it touched (curva jitga. Ovid. Fast. iv. 216, Trist. iv. 6. 2). The following woodcut shows two examples of the yoke, the upper from a MS. of Hesiod's Works and Days, preserved at Florence, the lower from a MS. of Terence belonging to the Vatican library. These may be compared with the still ruder forms of the yoke as now used in Asia Minor, which are

v /

introduced in the article aratrum. The practice of having the yoke tied to the horns and pressing upon the foreheads of the oxen (capite, non cervice junctis, Plin. H. N. viii. 70), which is now com­mon on the continent of Europe, and especially in France, is strongly condemned by Columella on grounds of economy as well as of humanity. {De Re Rust. ii. 2.) He recommends that their heads should be left free, so that they may raise them aloft and thus make a much handsomer appearance. (Cic. Nat. Deor. ii. 63; Ovid. Met. vii. 211.) All this was effected by the use either of the two collars (subjugia, Vitruv. x. 3. 8 ; /.teo-aga, Hesiod. Op. et Dies. 469 ; Proclus, ad loc. ; &vy\at, Horn. ti. xix. 406 ; Schol. ad Apoll. Rhod. iii. 232)

JUGUM.

shown in the upper figure of the woodcut, or of the excavations (y\v(f>ai) cut in the yoke, with the bands of leather (lora; vincla, Tib. ii. 1. 7 ; rav-pofienv fivpcrav eVauxei'i^z', Brunck, Anal. iii. 44, , which are seen in the lower figure.

This figure also shows the method of tying the yoke to the pole (temo^ pvfjios) by means of a leathern strap (Cvy6Se(T[j.o^ Horn. //. v. 730, xxiv. 268—274), which was lashed from the two op­posite sides over the junction of the pole and yoke. These two parts were still more firmly connected by means of a pin (e/^oAos1, Schol. in Eurip. Hip-pol. 666 ; eWw/), Horn. 1. c. ; Arrian. Exped. Aleoe. ii. p. 85, ed. Blan. ; e/xgpvo*', Hes. I. c.\ xvhich fitted a circular cavity in the middle of the yoke (o/x^xxAbs, Horn. I. c.). Homer represents the leathern band as turned over the fastening thrice in each direction. But the fastening was some­times much more complicated, especially in the case of the celebrated Gordian knot, which tied the yoke of a common cart, and consisted only of flexi­ble twigs or bark, but in which the ends were so concealed by being inserted within the knot, that the only way of detaching the yoke was that which Alexander adopted. (Arrian, I. c.\ Q. Curt. iii. 2 ; Schol. in Eurip. I. c.}

Besides being variegated with precious materials and with carving, the yoke, especially among the Persians, was decorated with elevated plumes and figures. Of this an example is presented in a bas-relief from Persepolis, preserved in the British Museum. The chariot of Dareius was remarkable for the golden statues of Belus and Ninus, about eighteen inches high, which were fixed to the yoke over the necks of the horses, a spread eagle, also wrought in gold, being placed between them. (Q. Curt. iii. 3.) The passages above cited show that when the carriage was prepared for use, the yoke which had been laid aside, was first fastened to the pole, and the horses were then led under it. Either above them, or at the two ends of the yoke, rings were often fixed, through which the reins passed. These frequently appear in works of ancient art, representing chariots.

Morning and evening are often designated in poetry by the act of putting the yoke on the oxen (Hes. Op. et Dies, 581) and taking it off. (Hor. Cann. iii. 6. 42 ; Virg. Ed. ii. 66 ; Ovid. Fast. v. 497 ; /3ovAu(m, jSouAurbs, Arrian, /. c. ; Horn, //. xvi. 779 ; Cic. ad Att. xv. 27 ; fiovAv&tos &p Arat. Dios, 38/.)

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