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On this page: Interula – Intestabilis – Intestato – Intestatus – Intestinum Opus – Intusium – Inventarium – Investis – Iren – Irpex – Iselastici – Isodomum – Isopoliteia – Isotelei



when the senate wished to share the sovereign power among themselves instead of electing a king. For this purpose, according to Livy (i. 17), the senate, which then consisted of one hundred mem­bers, was divided into ten decuries ; and from each of these decuries one senator was nominated. These together formed a board of ten, with the title of Interreges^ eacli of whom enjoyed in. succession the regal power and its badges for five days ; and if no king was appointed at the expiration of fifty days, the rotation began anew. The period during which they exercised their power was called an Interregnum, Dionysius (ii. 57) and Plutarch (Numa, 2) give a different account of the matter; but that of Livy appears the most probable. Niebuhr (Hist, of Rome, vol. i. p, 334, vol. ii. p. Ill) supposes that the first interreges were ex­clusively Ramnes, and that they were the Decem Primi, or ten leading senators, of whom the first was chief of the whole senate. (Compare Walter, Gesch. des Rom. Rechts, § 21, 2nd ed.)

The interreges agreed among themselves who should be proposed as kin«g (Dionys. iv. 40, 80), and if the senate approved of theis choice, they summoned the assembly of the curiae, and pro­posed the person whom they had previously agreed upon.; the power of the curiae was confined to ac­cepting or rejecting him. The decree of the curiae, by which they accepted the king, was called jitssits populi (Liv. i. 22 ; Cic. de Rep. ii. 13, 21.) After the king had been elected, the curiae conferred the imperium upon him by a special law, lex curiata de imperio. (Cic. de Rep. ii. 13, 17, 18, 20, 21.)

Interreges were appointed under the republic for holding the comitia for the election of the consuls, when the consuls, through civil commotions, or other causes, had been unable to do so in then-year of office. (Dionys. viii. 90 ; Liv. iv. 43, &c.) Each held the office for only five days, as under the kings. The comitia were,, as a general rule, not held by the first interrex; more usually by the second or third (Liv. ix. 7, x. 11, v. 31) ; but in one instance we read of an eleventh,.and in another of a fourteenth interrex. (Liv. via. 22^ vim. 23.) The comitia for electing the first consuls were held by Sp. Lucretius as interrex (Dionys. iv. 84), whom Livy (i. 60) calls also prctefectus urbis. The interreges under the republic, at least from B. c. 482, were elected by the senate from the-whole body, and were not confined to the decem

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prirai or ten chief senators as under the kings. (Dionys. viii. 90.) Plebeians, however, were- not admissible to this office ; and consequently when plebeians were admitted into the senate, the patri­cian senators met together (coiere) without the plebeian members to elect an interrex. (Liv. iii. 40, iv. 7, 43, vi. 41 ; Cic. pro Domo, 14 ; Niebuhr, vol. ii. p. 429 ; Walter, §§ 55, 131.) For this reason, as well as on account of the influence which the interrex exerted in the election of the magis­trates, we find that the tribunes of the plebs were strongly opposed to the appointment of an interrex. (Liv. iv. 43, xxii. 34.) The interrex had juris-dictio. (Liv. x. 41 ; Niebuhr, vol. iii. p. 24.)

Interreges continued to be appointed occasionally till the time of the second Punic war (Liv. xxii. 33, 34) ; but after that time we read of no interrex, till the senate, by command of Sulla, created an interrex to hold the comitia for his election as Dic­tator, b. c. 82. (Appian, Bell. Civ. i. 98.) In b. c. £5 another interrex was appointed to hold the


comitia, in which Pompey and Crassus were elected consuls (Dion Cass. xxxix. 27, 31) ; and we also read of interreges in b. c. 53 and 52, in the latter of which years an interrex held the comitia, in which Pompey was appointed sole consul. (Dion Cass. xl. 45 ; Ascon. ad Cic. Mil. init. p. 32, Orelli; Plut. Pomp. 54 ; comp. Becker, Handbuch dei' Romischen Alterthumer, vol. ii. part i. p. 295, &c.)

INTERULA. [tunica.]

INTESTABILIS. In the Twelve Tables it was declared " qui se sierit testarier libripensve fuerit, ni testimonium fariatur, improbus intesta- bilisque esto." (Dirksen, Uebersicht, &c. p. 607 ;. compare Gellius, vi. 7, xv. 13.) According to these passages, a person who had been a witness on any solemn occasion, such as the making of a will, and afterwards refused to give his testimony, was " intestabilis," that is, disqualified from ever being a witness on any other occasion. The word afterwards seems to have had its meaning extended, and to have been used to express one who could not make a will, and who laboured under a general civil incapacity. (Hor. Sat. ii. 3. 181; Dig. 28. tit. 1. s. 18. 26 ; Inst. ii. tit. 10.] [G. L.]

INTESTATO, HEREDITATES AB. [heres, p. 598, a.]

INTESTATUS. [heres, p. 598, a.]

INTESTINUM OPUS, joiner's work, is re­ ferred to in some passages of Vitruvius as used in the interior of buildings ; but there is nothing in his allusions to it that requires explanation (Vitruv. ii. 9, v. 2, v. 3). [P. S.]

INTUSIUM. [tunica.]

INVENTARIUM. [heres, p. 601, b.]

INVESTIS. [impubes.]

IREN (i/>7?J>). [ElREN.]

IRPEX, HIRPEX, or URPEX (Cato, de Re Rust. 10), a harrow, used to clear the fields of weeds and to level and break down the soil. (Festus, s. v. ; Servius, in Virg. Georg. i. 95.) The harrow of the ancients, like ours, had iron teeth, and was drawn by oxen. (Var. de Ling. Lat. v. 3-1,. ed-. Spengel..). [J. Y.]

ISELASTICIs LUDI [athletae.]


ISOPOLITEIA (tVoTroAiTcm). [civitas, p. 289, b.]

ISOTELEI& (&TOTeA€is). [CiVJTAS, p.289, b.] TSTHMIA ("10-0^0), one of the four great national festivals of the Greeks. This festival de­rived its name from the Corinthian isthmus, where it was held in honour of Poseidon. Where the isthmus is narrowest, between the coast of the Saronic gulf and the western foot of the Oenean hills, was the temple of Poseidon, and near it was a theatre and a stadium of white marble, the scene of the Isthmian games. (Paus. ii. ]. §7; Strab. viii. 6. p. 380.) The entrance to the temple was adorned with an avenue of statues of the victors in the Isthmian grumes, and with groves of pine-trees. These games were said originally to have been instituted by Sisyphus in honour of Melicertcsr who was also called Palaemon. (Apollod. iii. 4 § 3 ; Paus. ii. 1. § 3.) Their original mode o celebration partook, as Plutarch (Thes.25) remarks, more of the character of mysteries, than of a great and national assembly with its various amusements, and was performed at night. Subsequent to the age of Theseus the Isthmia were celebrated in honour of Poseidon ; and this innovation is,ascribed

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