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was not bound to give damages to that amount, he seldom gave less. An injuria had the character of atrox, either from the act itself, or the place where it was done, as for instance, a theatre or forum, or from the condition of the person injured, as if he were a magistratus, or if he were a senator and the wrong-doer were a person of low condition.
A Lex Cornelia specially provided for cases of Tv'^tio, verberatio, and forcible entry into a man's house (domus}. The jurists who commented on .this lex defined the legal meaning of pulsatio, verberatio, and domus. (Dig. 47. tit. 10. s. 5.)
The actions for Injuria were gradually much extended, and the praetor would, according to the circumstances of the case (causa cognila)^ give a person an action in respect of any act or conduct of another, which tended, in the judgment of the praetor, to do him injury in reputation or to wound his feelings. (Dig. 47. tit. 10. s. 15, 22, 23, 24, &c.) Many cases of Injuria were subject to a special punishment (Dig. 47. tit. 11) as deportatio ; and this proceeding extra ordinem was often adopted instead of the civil action. Various imperial constitutions affixed the punishment of death to libellous writings (famosi libelli}. [libelli.]
Infamia was a consequence of condemnation in an actio Injuriarum [infamia]. He who brought such an action per calumniam was liable to be punished extra ordinem. (Gaius, iii. 220—225 ; Hor. Sat. i. 1. 80 ; Dig. 47. tit. 10 ; Cod. Theod. ix. tit. 34 ; Cod. ix. tit. 36 ; Paulus, Sent. Recep. v. tit. 4 ; Rein, Das CriminalrecJtt der Romer^ p. 35, &c.) [G. L.]
INOA ('Ivcoa), festivals celebrated in several parts of Greece, in honour of the ancient heroine Ino. At Megara she was honoured with an annual (sacrifice, because the Megarians believed that her body had been cast by the waves upon their coast, and that it had been found and buried there by Cleso and Tauropolis. (Paus. i. 42. § 8.) Another festival of Ino was celebrated at Epidaurus Limera, in Laconia. In the neighbourhood of this town there was a small but very deep lake, called the water of Ino, and at the festival of the heroine the people threw barley-cakes into the water. When the cakes sank it was considered a propitious sign, but when they swam on the surface it was an evil sign. (Paus. iii. 23. § 5.) An annual festival, with contests and sacrifices, in honour of Ino, was also held on the Corinthian Isthmus, and was said to have been instituted by king Sisyphus. (Tzetzes, ad Lycovkr.} [L. S.]
INOFFICIOSUM TESTAMENTUM. [testamentum.]
INQUILFNUS. [exsilium, p. 516, b.]
INSANIA, INSA'NUS. [curator.]
INSIGNE (o"f]^iiov^ eTHO'TyjWa, eViV^jttor, irapd-<rfyuoj>), a badge, an ensign, a mark of distinction. Thus th'e bulla worn by a Roman boy was one of the insignia of his rank. (Cic. Verr. ii. 58.) Five classes of insignia more especially deserve notice: —
I. Those belonging to officers of state or civil functionaries of all descriptions, such as the fasces carried before the consul at Rome, the laticlave and shoes worn by senators [calceus ; clavus], the carpentum and the sword bestowed by the emperor upon the praefect of the praetorium. (Lydus, de Mag. ii. 3. 9.) The Roman equites were distinguished by the " equus publicus," the
golden ring, the angustus clavus [p. 294], and the seat provided for them in the theatre and the circus. (C. G. Schwartz, piss. Selectae, pp. 84—101.) The insignia of the kings of Rome, viz. the trabea, the toga-praetexta, the crown of gold, the ivory sceptre, the sella curulis, and the twelve lictors with fasces, all of which except the crown and sceptre were transferred to subsequent denominations of magis-strates, were copied from the usages of the Etruscans and other nations of early antiquity. (Flor. i. 5 ; Sallust, B. Cat. 51; Virg. Aen. vii. 188, 612, xi. 334 ; Lydus, de Mag. i. 7, 8, 37.)
II. Badges worn by soldiers. The centurions in the Roman army were known by the crests of their helmets [galea], and the common men by their shields, each cohort having them painted in a manner peculiar to itself. (Veget. ii. 18 ; compare Caes. Bell. Gall. vii. 45.) [clipeus.] Among the Greeks the devices sculptured or painted upon shields (see woodcut, p. 298), both for the sake of ornament and as badges of distinction, employed the fancy of poets and of artists of every description from the earliest times. Thus the seven heroes who fought against Thebes, all except Amphiaraus, had on their shields expressive figures and mottoes, differently described, however, by different authors. (Aeschyl. Sept. c. Theb. 383 —646; Eurip. Phoen. 1125—1156; Apollodor. Bibl. iii. 6. § 1.) Alcibiades, agreeably to his general character, wore a shield richly decorated with ivory and gold, and exhibiting a representation of Cupid brandishing a thunderbolt. (Athen. xii. p. 534, e.) The first use of these emblems on shields is attributed to the Carians (Herod, i. 171) ; and the fictitious employment of them to deceive and mislead an enemy was among the stratagems of war. (Paus. iv.28. §3 ; Virg. Aen.il 389—392.)
III. Family badges. Among the indignities practised by the Emperor Caligula, it is related that he abolished the ancient insignia of the noblest families, viz. the torques, the cincinni, and the cognomen " Magnus." (Sueton. Calig. 35.)
IV. Signs placed on the front of buildings. A figure of Mercury was the common sign of a gymnasium ; but Cicero had a statue of Minerva to fulfil the same purpose. (Ad Alt. i. 4.) Cities had their emblems as well as separate edifices ; and the officer of a city sometimes affixed the emblem to public documents as we do the seal of a municipal corporation. (Antigonus Caryst. 15.)
V. The figure-heads of ships. The insigne of a ship was an image placed on the prow, and giving its name to the vessel. (Tacit. Ann. vi. 34 ; Caes. B. Civ. ii. 6.) Paul sailed from Melite to Puteoli in the Dioscuri, a vessel which traded between that city and Alexandria. (Acts., xxviii. 11.) Enschede has drawn out a list of one hundred names of ships, which occur either in classical authors or in ancient inscriptions. (Diss. de Tut. et Insignibus Naviuin^ reprinted in Ruhnken, Opusc. pp. 257—305.) The names were those of gods and heroes, together with their attributes, such as the helmet of Minerva, painted on the prow of the ship which conveyed Ovid to Pontus (a picta casside nomen habet, Trist. i. 9. 2) ; of virtues and affections, as Hope, Concord, Victory; of countries, cities, and rivers, as the Po, the Min-cius (Virg. Aen. x. 206), the Delia, the Syracuse, the Alexandria (Athen. v. 43) \ and of men, women, and animals, as the boar's head, which distinguished the vessels of Samos (Herod, iii. 59;