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cording to the particular occasion intended ; made of silver, bronze, clay, stone, or wood, according to the circumstances of the possessor ; sometimes adorned with figures ; and employed to hold amphorae, bottles, alabastra, or any other vessels which were round or pointed at the bottom, and therefore required a separate contrivance to keep them erect. (Festus, s.v. Incitega ; Bekker, Anecd. 245 ; Wilkinson, Man. and Customs., vol. ii. pp.158, 160, 216, 217.) Some of those used at Alexandria were triangular. (Athen. v. 45.) We often see them represented in ancient Egtyptian paintings. The annexed woodcut shows three ayyoO^ic.ai^ which are preserved in the British Museum. Those on the right and left hand are of wood, the one having four feet, the other six ; they were found in Egyptian tombs. The third is a broad earth enware ring, which is used to support a Grecian amphora. [J. Y.]
INCORPORATES RES. [dominium.]
INCUNABULAorCUNA'BULA (ffirdpya-, swaddling-clothes.
The first thing done after the "birth of a child was to wash it ; the second to wrap it in swaddling clothes, and the rank of the child was indicated by the splendour and costliness of this, its first attire. Sometimes a fine white shawl, tied with a gold band, was used for the purpose (Horn. Hymn. inApoll. 121,122) ; at other times a small purple scarf, fastened with a brooch. (Find. Pytli. iv. 114 ; %Aa/xv5foi/, Longus, i. 1. p. 14, 28, ed. Boden.) The poor used broad fillets of common cloth (panni, Luke, ii. 7,12 ; Ezek. xvi. 4. Vulg. ; compare Horn. Hymn, in Merc. 151, 806; Apollod. Bibl. iii. 10. § 2 ; Aelian, V. H. ii. 7 ; Eurip. 7o?z, 32 ; Dion Chrysost. vi. p. 203, eel. Reiske ; Plant.
Ampliit. v. 1.52, True. v. 13). The preceding woodcut, taken from a beautiful bas-relief at Rome, which is supposed to refer to the birth of Telephus, shows the appearance of a child so clothed, and renders in some degree more intelligible the fable of the deception practised by Rhea upon Saturn in saving the life of Jupiter by presenting a stone, enveloped in swaddling-clothes, to be devoured by Saturn instead of his new-born child. (Hes. Theog. 485.) It was one of the peculiarities of the Lace daemonian education to dispense with the use of incunabula, and to allow children to enjoy the free use of their limbs. (Pint. Lycurg. p. 90, ed. Steph.) [J. Y.J
INCUS (a.Kp.tev\ an anvil. The representations of Vulcan and the Cyclopes on various works of art, show that the ancient anvil was formed like that of modern times. When the smith wanted to make use of it, he placed it on a large block of wood (a,Kfjt,60eTov9 Horn. II. xviii. 410, 476, Od. viii. 274 ; positis incudilus, Virg. Aen. vii. 629 ; viii. 451) ; and when he made the link of a chain, or any other object which was round or hollow, he beat it upon a point projecting from one side of the anvil. The annexed woodcut, representing Vulcan forging a thunderbolt for Jupiter, illustrates these circumstances ; it is taken from a gem in the Royal Cabinet at Paris. It appears that in
the " brazen age," not only the things made upon the anvil, but the anvil itself, with the hammer and the tongs, were made of bronze. (Horn. Od. iii. 433, 434; Apollon. Rhod. iv. 761, 762.) [malleus.] [J. Y.]
INFAMTA. The provisions as to Infamia, as they appear in the legislation of Justinian, are con tained in Dig. 3. tit. 2. De his qui notantur In famia, and in Cod. 2. tit. 12. Ex quibus causis In famia irrogatur. The Digest contains (s. 1) the cases of Infamia as enumerated in the Praetor's Edict. There are also various provisions on the subject in the Lex Julia Municipalis (b.c. 45), commonly called the Table of Heraclea.
Infamia was a consequence of condemnation in any Judicium Publicum, of ignominious (ignominiae causa} expulsion from the army (Tab. Heracl. ]. 121), of a woman being detected in adultery, though she might not have been condemned in a Judicium Publicum, &c. ; of condemnatio for Fur-