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inauguratio, especially that of the rex sacrificulus and of the fmmines, was sometimes performed by the college of pontiffs in the comitia calata. (Gell. xv. 27.) But all other priests, as well as new members of the college of augurs, continued to be inaugurated by the augurs, or sometimes by the augurs in conjunction with some of the pontiffs (Liv. xxvii. 8, xl. 42) ; the chief pontiff had the right to enforce the inauguratio, if it was refused by the augurs, and if he considered that there was no sufficient ground for refusing it. Sometimes one augur alone performed the rite of inauguratio, as in the case of Numa Pompilius (Liv. i. 18 ; compare Cic. Brut. 1 ; Macrob. Sat. ii. 9) ; and it would seem that in some cases a newly appointed priest might himself not only fix upon the day, but also upon the particular augur by whom he desired to be inaugurated. (Cic. L c. • and Philip, ii. 43.) During the kingly period of Rome the inaugura­ tion of persons was not confined to actual priests •' but the kings, after their election by the populus, were inaugurated by the augurs, and thus became the high-priests of their people. After the civil and military power of the kings had been conferred upon the consuls, and the office of high-priest was given to a distinct person, the rex sacrorum, he was, as stated above, inaugurated by the pontiffs in the comitia calata, in which the chief pontiff presided. But the high republican magistrates, nevertheless, likewise continued to be inaugurated (Dionys. ii. 6), and for this purpose they were summoned by the augurs (condictio, denunciatio) to appear on the capitol on the third day after their election. (Serv. ad Virg. Aen. iii. 117.) This inauguratio conferred no priestly dignity upon the magistrates, but was merely a method of obtaining the sanction of the gods to their election, and gave them the right to take the auspicia ; and on im­ portant emergencies it was their duty to make use of this privilege. At the time of Cicero, however, this duty was scarcely ever observed. (Cic. de Divin. ii. 36.) As nothing of any importance was ever introduced or instituted at Rome without consult­ ing the pleasure of the gods by augury, we read of the inauguratio of the tribes, i&c. [L. S.]

INAURIS, an ear-ring ; (jailed in Greek tv&-tiov, because it was worn in the ear (o5s), and €\\6§iov* because it was inserted into the lobe of the ear (Ao§<5s), which was bored for the purpose. (Horn. II. xiv. 182, Hymn, ii in Ven. 9 ; Plin. //. N. xii. 1.)

Ear-rings were worn by both sexes in oriental countries (Plin. H. N. xi. 50) ; especially by the Lydians (Xen. Anab. iii. 1. § 31), the Persians (Diod. Sic. v. 45), the Babylonians (Juv. i. 104), and also by the Libyans (Macrob. Sat. vii. 3), and the Carthaginians (Plaut. Poen. v. 2. 21). Among the Greeks and Romans they were worn only by females.

This ornament consisted of the ring (kp'ikos, Diod. Sic. L c.) and of the drops (stalagmia, Festus, s. v. ; Plaut. Men. iii. 3. 18.) The ring was gene­rally of gold, although the common people also wore ear-rings of bronze. See Nos. 1, 4, from the Egyptian collection in the British Museum. Instead of a ring a hook was often used, as shown in Nos. 6, 8. The women of Italy still continue the same practice, passing the hook through the lobe of the ear without any other fastening. The drops were sometimes of gold, very finely wrought (see Nos. 2, 7, 8), and sometimes of pearls (Plin, II. cc. •

Sen. de Ben. vii. 9 ; Ovid. Met. x. 265 ; Claud, da VI. Cons. Honor. 528 ; Sen. Hippol. ii. 1. 33). and precious stones (Nos. 3, 5, 6). The pearls were valued for being exactly spherical (Hor. Epod. viii. .1 3), as well as for their great size and delicate whiteness ; but those of an elongated form, called elenclii^ were also much esteemed, being adapted to terminate the drop, and being sometimes placed two or three together for this purpose. (Plin. H. N., ix. 56 ; Juv. vi. 364.) In the Iliad (xiv. 182,183), Hera, adorning herself in the most captivating manner, puts on ear-rings made with three drops resembling mulberries. (See Eustath. ad loc.) Pliny observes (xi. 50) that greater expense was lavished on no part of the dress than on the ear-rings. According to Seneca (I. c.} the ear-ring, No. 3, in the preceding woodcut, in which a couple of pearls are strung both above and below the precious stone, was worth a patrimony. (See also De Vita Beata^ 17.) All the ear-rings above engraved belong to the Hamilton collection in the British Museum.

In opulent families the care of the ear-rings was the business of a female slave, who was called Auriculae Ornatrioo (Gruter, Inscrlp.}. The Venus de1 Medici, and other female statues, have the ears pierced, and probably once had ear-rings in them; The statue of Achilles at Sigeum, representing him in female attire, likewise had this ornament. (Serv. in Virg. Aen. i. 30 ; Tertull. de Pall. 4.) [J. Y.]

INCENDIUM, the crime of setting any object on fire, by which the property of a man is endan­gered. It was thus a more general term than the modern Arson, which is limited to the act of wilfully and maliciously burning the property of another. The crime of incendium was the subject of one of the laws of the Twelve Tables, which h> flicted a severe punishment on the person who set fire to property maliciously (sciens, prudens) ; but if it was done by accident (casu^ id est^negligentia)^ the law obliged the offender to repair the injury he had committed. (Dig. 47. tit. 9. s. 9.) The pun­ishment, however, of burning alive, which is men­tioned in the passage of the Digest referred to, is supposed by modern commentators not to have been contained in the Twelve Tables, but to have been transferred from the imperial period to earlier times. In the second Punic war a great fire broke out at

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