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of this harsh admonition, some walls or pavements exhibited the/more gracious SALVE or XAIPE. (Plat. Charm, p. 94, ed. Heindorf.) The appro priate names for the portion of the house immedi ately behind the door (Srvp&v^ Soph. Oed. Tyr. 1242, Elect. 328), denotes that it was a kind of apartment; it corresponded to the hall or lobby of our houses. Immediately adjoining it, and close to the front door, there was in many houses a small room for the porter (cella, or cellula janitor is, Sue ton. VitelL 16 ; Varro, de Re Rust. i. 13 ; &vpcape'iov.> Pollux, i. 77)- [J. Y.]
IATRALIPTA, IATRALIPTES, or 1A- TROALIPTES (IccT/mAenmfc), the name given by the ancients to a physician who paid particular attention to that part of medical science called latraliptice. The name is compounded of larpls and aA€i<£co, and signifies literally n physician that cures by anointing. According to Pliny (H. N. xxix. 2), they were at first only the slaves of phy sicians, but afterwards rose to the rank of physicians themselves, and were therefore superior to the aliptae. [aliptae.] The word occurs in Paulus Aegineta (De Re Med. iii. 47), Celsus (De Medic. i. 1) and other medical writers. [W. A> G.]
IATRTJS (larpos). [medicus]
IATROSOPHISTA ('mrpocro^t'tr^s), an an cient medical title, signifying apparently (according to Du Cange, Glossar. Med. et. Inf. Graecit.) one who both taught medicine and also practised it himself; as the ancients made a distinction be tween SiSacr/caAtKrj and e/?7cms, the art and the science of medicine, the theory and the practice. (Damascius in vita Isidori.) Eunapius Sardianus (De Vit. Philosoph. et Sophist, p. 168, ed. Antwerp. 1568) calls them e^rr/cTjjU.ei'ous \cyew re teal Troie'iV larpLK^. The word is somewhat varied in different authors. Socrates (Hist. Eccles. vii. 13) calls Adamantius iaTptK&v \6ycw.cre<f)i<rT'f]s> Ste- phanus Byzantinus (s. v. Tea) mentions t&v iarpfov <To<pHTrr/f)s ; Callisthenes (quoted in Du Cange), iarp'bs ffo^icn-^s : and Theophanes (ibid.) tj'ofyia'T'hs ttjs larpiKrjs eTnar^u^s. Several ancient physicians are called by this title, e. g. Magnes (Theoph. Protospnth. De Urinis), Cassius, the author of " Quaestiones Medicae et Naturales," and others. [W.A. G.]
IDUS. [calenbarium, roman.]
JENTACULUM. [coena, p. 306, a.]
IGNOBILES. [NoBiLEsJ IGNOMI'NIA. [infamia.]
ILE (3£\ri). [exercitus, p. 488, b.]
ILLUSTRES. When Constantine the Great re-organized the Roman administration, he divided the principal magistrates and officials into three classes : — 1. The Illustres, who held the first rank; 2. The Specialties ; and 3. The Clarissimi. The title of'Illustres belonged only to the Consules, the Patricii, the Praefectus praetorio, the Praefectus urbi, the -Praepositus sacri cubiculi, the Magistri militum, the Magister officiorum, the Quaestor sacri palatii, the Comes sacrarum largitionum, and the Comes rerum privatarum. Even among the Illustres there was a gradation of rank, the Consuls and Patricii being regarded as higher in dignity than the others. The titles Sublimissimi, Ecccelleniissimi* and Magnifid are used as synonymous with Illustres. Among the privileges of the Illustres we read that in criminal cases they could only be tried by the emperor himself or by an imperial commission, and that they could appear before the courts by
means of procurators. (Cod. Theod. 6. tit. 6, &c., with the commentary of Gothofred ; Walter, Gescli-ichte des Romischen Rechts, § 380, 2nd ed. ; Gibbon, Decline and Fall^ c. 17. vol. iii. p. 34, London, 1797.)
IMAGINUM JUS. [nobiles.]
IMAGO, the representation or likeness of any object, is derived from the root im or sim, which appears in im-itari and sim-ilis^ and likewise in the Greek 6^-6$. (" Imago ab imitatione dicta," Festus, s. v. ; " Imago dicitur quasi imitago^ Por-phyr. ad Hor. Carm. i. 12. 4.) It was especially applied among the Romans to indicate the waxen busts of deceased ancestors, which distinguished Romans kept in the atria of their houses, and of which an account is given in the article nobiles. The word is also used in general to signify a portrait or statue of a person ; on both of which some remarks are made under pictura, No. XV. and statuaria, No. II.
IMMUNFTAS (from in and mumts), signifies, 1. A freedom from taxes. 2. A freedom from services which other citizens had to discharge. With respect to the first kind of immunitas we find that the emperors frequently granted it to separate persons (Suet. Aug. 40), or to certain classes of persons, or to whole states. When 'granted to individuals the immunitas ceased with their death, but in the case of states the privilege continued to subsequent generations. (Dig. 50. tit. 15. s. 4. § 3.) Thus we find that certain people in Illyria had immunitas from taxes (Liv. xlv. 26), and that the emperor Claudius granted freedom from taxation in perpetuum to the inhabitants of Ilium. (Suet. Claud. 25.) The Roman soldiers from the time of Nero were exempt from all duties on goods which they might carry into the provinces for their own use or might purchase in any place. (Tac. Ann. xiii. 51 ; Cod. 4. tit. 61. s. 3.)
The second kind of immunitas was granted to all persons who had a valid excuse (excusatio) to be released from such services, and also to other persons as a special favour. Under the republic, public offices were objects of ambition, and consequently there was no difficulty in obtaining persons to discharge them even when they were attended with expense to the individual who held them. But under the empire the case became different. Many offices which entailed expenses, such, for instance, as that of the decuriones in the municipia, were avoided rather than sought after ; and hence various regulations were made at different times to define the classes of persons who were entitled to exemption. (Comp. Dig. 50. tit. 6 ; Cod. 10. tit. 47 and 48.) The definition of immunitas in this sense is given by Paulus (Dig. 50. tit. 16. s. 18): — " Munus — onus, quod cum remittatur, vacationem militiae munerisque praestat, inde immunitatem ap-pellari." The immunitas might be either general, from all services which a citizen owed to the state, or special, such as from military service [exercitus, p. 499], from taking the office of tutor or guardian [tutor], and the like.
IMPENDIUM. [fenus, p. 526, b.]
IMPERIUM. Gains (iv. 103), when making a division of judicia into those Quae Legitimo jure consistunt, and those Quae Imperio conti-nentur, observes tlmt the latter are so called