The Ancient Library

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Even eacli valve was sometimes double, so as to ibid like our window-shutters (duplices complica-lilesque, Isid. Orig. xv. 7). The mode of attach­ing doors to the door-way is explained under the article cardo.

The remaining specimens of ancient doors are all of marble or of bronze ; those made of wood, which was by far the most common material, have perished. The door of a tomb at Pompeii (Mazois, Ruines de Pompei, vol. i. pi. xix. fig. 4) is made of a single piece of marble, including the pivots, which were encased in bronze, and turned in sockets of the same metal. It is 3 feet high, 2 feet 9 inches wide, 4^- inches thick. It is cut in front to resemble panels, and thus to approach nearer to the appearance of a common wooden door, and it was fastened by a lock, traces of which remain. The beautifully wrought tombs of Asia Minor and other eastern countries have stone doors, made either to turn on pivots or to slide sideways in grooves. Doors of bronze are often mentioned by ancient writers. (Herod, i. 179 , Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 7.) The doors of a supposed temple of llemus, still existing at Rome, and now occupied as a Christian church, are of this material. Mr. Donaldson (Collection of Door-ivays from Anvient Buildings, London, 1833, pi. 21) has represented them filling up the lower part of the door-way of the temple at Cora, as shown in the last woodcut, which is taken from him. The four panels are surrounded by rows of small circles, marking the spots on which were fixed rosettes or bosses, simi­lar to those which are described and figured in the article bull a, and which served both to strengthen and to adorn the doors. The leaves of the doors were sometimes overlaid with gold, which was an Eastern practice, as we see from the doors in the temple of Solomon at Jerusalem (1 Kings, vi. 32— 35) ; at other times they were enriched with the most exquisite carving. (Ovid. Met. viii. 705 ; Virg. Georg. iii. SQ^Aen. vi. 20—33.) Those in the temple of Minerva, at Syracuse, are said by Cicero ( Verr, iv. 56) to have exceeded all others in the curious and beautiful workmanship executed upon them in gold and ivory. " It is incredible," says he, " how many Greeks have left writings descriptive of the elegance of these valves." One of the ornaments was " a most beautiful Gorgon's head with tresses of snakes," probably occupying the centre of a panel. In addition to the sculptures upon the valves themselves, the finest statues were some­times placed beside them, probably at the base of the antepagmenta, as in the magnificent temple of Juno in Samos. (Cic. Verr. i. 23.) In the fancied palace of Alcinous (Od. vii. 83—94) the door-case, which was of silver with a threshold of bronze, included folding-doors of gold ; whilst dogs, wrought in gold and silver, guarded the approach, probably disposed like the avenue of sphinxes be­fore an Egyptian temple. As luxury advanced among the Romans metal took the place of wood, even in the doors of the interior of a house. Hence the Quaestor Sp. Carvilius reproved Camillus for having his chamber doors covered with bronze (aerata ostia, Plin. L c.).

A lattice-work is to be observed above the bronze doors in the last woodcut, Mr. Donaldson having introduced it on the authority more espe­cially of the Pantheon at Rome, where the upper part of the door-way is filled with a window such as that here represented. Vitruvius (iv. 6. § 1) calls


it the Jiypactrum, and his language implies that it was commonly used in temples.

The folding-doors exhibited in the last woodcut, instead of a rebate such as we employ, have an up­right bronze pilaster standing in the middle of the door-way, so as to cover the joining of the valves. The fastenings of the door (daustra, Ovid. Amor. i. 6. 17 ; obices) commonly consisted in a bolt (pessulus ; {JLcivdaXos, tfaroxeus, K\*idpov9 Ait. K\rj6pov, Soph, Oed. Tyr. 1262, 1287, 1294) placed at the base of each foris, so as to admit of being pushed into a socket made in the sill to re­ceive it (7ry0/xV, Soph. Oed. Tyr. 1261). The Pompeian door-ways show two holes correspond­ing to the bolts of the two fores (Gell, Pompeiana, 2nd Ser. vol. i, p. 167) ; and they agree with numerous passages which mention in the plural number " the bolts," or, " both the bolts " of a door. (Plant. Aulul. i. 2. 26, Cure. i. 2. 60—70 ; Soph. II. 'cc. ; Callim. in A poll. 6.)

The annexed woodcut shows an ancient bolt preserved in the Museum at Naples. (Mazois, Rnines de Pompii, vol. i. part. 2. pi. vii.)

By night, the ffont--door of the house was further secured by means of a wooden and sometimes an iron bar (sera, repagula, /^Ata) placed ftcrnss it, and inserted into sockets, on each side of the door­way. (Festus, s. v. Adserere ; Ovid. Amor. i. 6. 24—56.) Hence it was necessary to remove the bar (r'bv /xo%Ab*/ Tropc^epetj/,, a,vOjUoxAeuet z/, Eurip. Med* 1309) in order to Open the door (reserare). (Theophrast. Char. 18 ; Plutarch, Pelop. p. 517, ed. Steph. ; Plant. Cist. iii. 18 ; Ovid. Met.v. 120.) Even chamber-doors were secured in the same manner (Heliodor. vi. p. 281, ed. Comm.; cubicidi obseratis foribus, Apul, Met. ix.) ; and here also, in case of need, the bar was employed as a further security in addition to the two bolts (K\f}6pa av^-irepaivovres /xo'^A-Ois, Eurip. Orest. 1546, 1566, Iph. Aul. 345, Androm. 952). To fasten the door with the bolt wasjamtae pessulum obdere, with the barjamiam obserare (Ter. Eun. iii. 5. 55, iv. 6. 26, Heaut. ii. 3, 37). At Athens a jealous husband sometimes even proceeded to seal the door of the women's apartment. (Aristoph.

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