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&nd to observe the rites performed before it. Also the whole .light of the building was commonly admitted through the same aperture. These circumstances are illustrated in the accompanying woodcut, showing the front of a small temple of Jupiter,
taken from a bas-relief. (Man. Matt. vol. iii. Tab. 39.) The term antepagmentitm^ which has been already explained, and which was applied to the lintel as well as the jambs (antepagmentum sitperius, Yitruv. iv. 6. § 1), implies, that the doors opened inwards. This is clearly seen in the same woodcut, and is found to be the construction of all ancient buildings at Pompeii and other places. In some of these buildings, as for example, in that called " the house of the tragic poet," even the marble threshold rises about an inch higher than the bottom of the door (Gell's Pompeiana, 2nd Ser. vol. i. p. 144), so that the door was in every part behind the door-case. After the time of Hippias the street-doors were not permitted to open outwardly at Athens (Becker, Charikles, vol. i. pp. 189, 200); and hence svtiovvai meant to open the door on coming in, and €TrHnrd<ra(r6cu or ftyeXKixraardai to shut it on going out. In a single instance only were the doors allowed to open outwardly at Rome; an exception was made as a special privilege in honour of M. Valerius Publicola. (Schneider, in Vitruv. iv. 6. § 6.)
The lintel of the oblong door-case was in all large and splendid buildings, such as the great temples, surmounted either by an architrave and cornice, or by a cornice only. As this is not shown in the bas-relief above introduced, an actual door-way, viz., that of the temple of Hercules at Cora, is here added. Above the lintel is an architrave with a Latin inscription upon it, and above this a projecting cornice supported on each side by a console, which reaches to a level with the bottom of the lintel. The top of the cornice (corona summa^ Vitruv. iv. 6. § 1) coincided in height with the tops of the capitals of the columns of the pronaos, so that the door-way, with its superstructure, was exactly equal in height to the columns and the
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antae. This superstruciion was the liypertliyrum of Vitruvius (1. c.), and of the Greek architects whom he followed. The next woodcut shows one of the two consoles which support the cornice of a beautiful Ionic door-way in the temple of Minerva Polias at Athens. In the inscription relating to the building of that temple, which is now in the Elgin collection of the British Museum, the object here delineated is called ovs t<£ virepdvpy. Other Greek names for it, used by Vitruvius (iv. 6. § 4), are parotis and ancon^ literally a " side-ear " and " an elbow." The use of consoles, or trusses, in this situation was characteristic of the Ionic style of architecture, being never admitted in the Doric. It is to be observed that Homer (Od. vii. 90), Plesiod (Scut. 271), and Herodotus (i. 179), use the term vTrepdvpov, or its diminutive vTrepQupiov, to include the lintel. Upon some part of the hyper-thyrum there was often an inscription, recording the date and occasion of the erection, as in the case of the temple of Hercules above represented, or else merely expressing a moral sentiment, like the celebrated " Know thyself" upon the temple at Delphi.
The door itself was called forls or valva, and in Greek (ravis^ /cAioias, or StiptTpov. These words are commonly found in the plural, because the doorway of every building of the least importance contained two doors folding together, as in all the instances already referred to. When foris is used in the singular, we may observe that it denotes one of the folding-doors only, as in the phrase foris crepuit, which occurs repeatedly in Plautus, and describes the creaking of a single valve, opened alone and turning on its pivots. Even the internal doors of houses were bivalve (Gcll^s Pompeiana, 2nd Ser. vol. i. p. 166) ; hence we read of " the folding-doors of a bed-chamber" (fores cubiculi, Suet. Aug. 82 ; Q. Curt. v. 6 ; ffavibes eu apapiuat, Horn. Od. xxiii. 42 ; irvXai SiTrAcu, Soph. Oed. Tyr. 1261). But in every case each of the two valves was wide enough to allow persons to pass through without opening the other valve also;