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trial, the pretended citizen was reduced to slavery, and his property confiscated. [J. S. M.]
HYPOCAUSTUM. [balneae, p. 192, b.]
H YPOCOSMETAE (v-rroKoo-^rai), frequently occur in Athenian inscriptions of the time of the Roman empire, as assistants of the koo-^t^s, who at that period was the chief officer who regulated the exercises of the Gymnasium. (Krause, Gym- nastik und Agonistik, vol. i. p. 212, &c.)
HYPOCRITES (vTroKpiT^s). [HisTRio.] HYPODE MA (u7ro§V«). [calceus.] H YPOGE'UM. [funus, p. 561, a.] HYPOGRAMMATEUS (iWypa^areik).
HYPOMOSIA (uTTOjUOtrfe). [DlAETETAE ;
HYPORCHEMA (Mpxnva), was a lively kind of mimic dance which accompanied the songs used in the worship of Apollo, especially among the Dorians. It was performed by men and women. (Athen. xiv. p. 631.) A chorus of singers at the festivals of Apollo usually danced around the altar, while several other persons were appointed to accompany the action of the song with an appropriate mimic performance (vTropxeifftiai). The h}Tpor-chema was thus a lyric dance, and often passed into the playful and comie, whence Athenaeus (xiv. p. 630, &c.) compares it with the cordax of comedy. It had, according to the supposition of Muller, like all the music and poetry of the Dorians, originated in Crete, but was at an early period introduced in the island of Delos, where it seems to have continued to be performed down to the time of Lucian. (Athen. i. p. 15 ; Lucian, de Saltat. 16 ; compare Muller, Dor. ii. 8. § 14.) A similar kind of dance was the yepavos, which Theseus on his return from Crete was said to have performed in Delos, and which was customary in this island as late as the time of Plutarch. (Thes. 21.) The leader of this dance was called yepavov\K6s. (Hesych. s. v.) It was per.'brmed with blows, and with various turnings and windings («> pvd/u(p TT€pL€\i^€is Kal ai/e\i£eis e%orTt), and was said to be an imitation of the windings of the Cretan labyrinth. When the chorus was at rest, it formed a semicircle, with leaders at the two wings. (Pollux, iv. 101.)
The poems or songs which were accompanied by the hyporchem were likewise called hyporchemata. The first poet to whom such poems are ascribed was Thaletas: their character must have been in accordance with the playfulness of the dance which bore the same name, and by which they were ac companied. The fragments of the hyporchemata of Pindar confirm this supposition, for their rhythms, are peculiarly light, and have a very imitative and graphic character. (Bockh, de Meir. Find. p. 201, &c., and p. 270.) These characteristics must have existed in a much higher degree in the hyporchematic songs of Thaletas. (Muller, Hist, of Greek Lit. i. p. 23, &c. ; compare with p. 160, &c.) [L. S.]
HYPOTRACHELIUM. [columna, p. 325, a.]
HYSPLENX (fonrAvy*). [stadium,]
JACULATORES. [exercitus, p. 503, a.]
JANUA (dY>/ra), a door. Besides being applicable to the doors of apartments in the interior of a house, which were properly called ostia (Isid. Orig. xv. 7 ; Virg. Aen. vi. 43. 81), this term more especially denoted the first entrance into the house, i. e. the front or street door, which was also called anticum (Festus, s. v.\ and in Greek &vpa auAefos, cwAefa, avAios, av\ia (Od. xxiii. 19 ; Pind. Nem. i. 19 ; Menand. p. 87, ed. Mein. ; Harpocration, s.. v. ; Theophr. Char. 18 ; Theocrit. xv. 43 ; Charit. i. 2 ; Herodian, ii. 1). The houses of the Romans commonly had a back-door, called posti-cum, postica, or posticula (Festus, s. v.; Hor. Epist. i. 5. 31 ; Plant. Most. iii. 3. 27 ; Sueton. Claud. 18), and in Greek irapd6vpa dim. TrapaBvpiov. Cicero (post. Red. 6) also calls it pseudothyron, " the false door," in contradistinction to janua, the front door ; and, because it often led into the garden of the house (Plant. Stick, iii. 1. 40—44), it was called the garden-door (icfjiraia, Hermip. ap. Athen. xv. 6).
The door-way, when complete, consisted of four indispensable parts, the threshold, or sill ; the lintel ; and the two jambs.
The threshold (limen, j87j\bs, oSSas) was the object of superstitious reverence, and it was thought unfortunate to tread on it with the left foot. On this account the steps leading into a temple were of an uneven number, because the worshipper, after placing his right foot on the bottom step, would then place the same foot on the threshold also. (Vitruv. iii. 4.) Of this an example is presented in the woodcut, p. 97.
The lintel (jugumentum, Cat. de Re Rust* 14 ; superdlium, Vitruv. iv. 6) was also called limen (Juv. vi. 227), and more specifically limen superum, to distinguish it from the sill, which was called limen inferum. (Plant. Merc. v. 1. 1.) Being designed to support a superincumbent weight, it was generally a single piece, either of wood or stone. Hence those lintels, which still remain in ancient buildings, astonish us by their great length. In large and splendid edifices the jambs or door-posts (pastes, (TTaQfjLoi) were made to converge towards the top, according to certain rules, which are given by Vitruvius (I. c.\ In describing the construction of temples he calls them antcpagmenta, the propriety of which term may be understood from the ground-plan of the door at p. 241, where the hinges are seen to be behind the jambs. This plan may also serve to show what Theocritus means by the hollow door-posts (ffraQ^a /co?A« ftvpacoj/, Idyll, xxiv. 15). In the Augustan age it was fashionable to inlay the posts with tortoise-shell. (Virg. Georg. ii. 463.) Although the jamb was sometimes nearly twice the length of the lintel, it was made of a single stone even in the largest edifices. A very striking eifect was produced by the height of these door-ways, as well as by their costly decorations, beautiful materials, and tasteful proportions.
The door in the front of a temple, as it reached nearly to the ceiling, allowed the worshippers to view from without the entire statue of the divinity,