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for them by the emperors and other opulent persons. Nero was very curious about organs, both in regard to their musical effect and their mechanism. (Sueton. Ner. 41. 54.) A contorniate coin of this emperor, in the British Museum (see woodcut), shows an organ with a sprig of laurel on one
side, and a man standing on the other, who may have been victorious in the exhibitions of the cir cus or the amphitheatre. It is probable that these medals were bestowed upon such victors, and that the organ was impressed upon them on account of its introduction on such occasions. (Havercamp, de Num. contorniatis ; Rasche, Lex. Univ. Rei Num. s.v.ffydraulicumlnstrumentum.) The general form of the organ is also clearly exhibited in a poem by Publilius Porphyrius Optatianus, describing the instrument, and composed of verses so constructed as to show both the lower part which contained the bellows, the wind-chest which lay upon it, and over this the row of 26 pipes. These are repre sented by 26 lines, which increase in length each by one letter, until the last line is twice as long as the first. (Wernsdorf, Poetae Lat. Min. vol. ii. pp. 3.94— 413.) [J. Y.]
HYDRAU'LICA MA'CHINA. [Hy-
services which aliens (/xeVoi/coi) residing at Athens had to perform to the Athenians at the Panathenaea, and by which it was probably only intended to im press upon them the recollection that they were mere aliens and not citizens. The hydriaphoria was performed only by the wives of aliens (Pollux, iii. 55) ; whereas their daughters had on the same oc casion to perform the ffKiafiirityopia. (the carrying of parasols) to the Athenian maidens, and their hus bands the aKCL^^opia. (the carrying of vessels, see Aelian, F". H. vi. 1, with Perizonius ; Harpo- crat. s. v. 2,Ka(j)'f)<popoi). It is clear from the words of Aelian that these humiliating services were not demanded of the aliens by the laws of Solcn, but that they were introduced at a later period. (Pe- titus, Leg. Ait. p. 95.) The Irydriaphoria was the carrying of a vessel with water (uSpia, Ari- stoph. Eccles* 738)5 which service the married alien women had to perform to the married part of the female citizens of Athens, when they walked to the temple of Athena in the great procession at the Panathenaea. (Compare Meursius, Panathenaea^ c. 21.) , [L.S.J
HYLORI orH YLEO'RI (uAwpof,vA7?wpof),are said by Ilesychius (s. v.) to have been officers wiio
had the superintendence of forests compare Suidas, 6-. v.}. Aristotle ' (Polit. vi. 5), who divides all public officers into three classes (ap%ai, eVf^eA.TjTou, and virriperai), reckons the vhcapoi among the eVj/xeA^rcu, and says that by some they were called a-ypovopoi. They seem to have been a kind of police for the protection of the forests, similar to the German forster. But the exact nature of their office, or the Greek states where it existed, are unknown. [L. S.]
HYPASPISTAE (foraa-Tno-Taf). [ExERCiTUS, p. 488, b.]
HYPERETES (^pe'r^s). This word is derived from epea-o-w, eperTjs, and therefore originally signifies a rower ; but in later times the word was, with the exception of the soldiers or marines, applied to the whole body of persons who performed any service in a vessel. (Thucyd. vi. 31, with Gb'ller's note ; Demosth. c. Polycl. pp. 1214,1216, &c.; Polyb. v. 109.) In a still wider sense utttjp-6T?7s was applied to any person who acted as the assistant of another, and performed manual labour for him, whether in sacred or profane things (Pollux, i. J, 16, viii. 10), whence the word is sometimes used as synonymous with slave.- (Clitarchus, ap. Athen. vi. p. 267 ; compare Pollux, vii. 8. 2 ; Hesych. s. v.} Hence also the name virripeTai was sometimes given to those men by whom the hopli-tae were accompanied when they took the field, and who carried the luggage, the provisions, and the shield of the hoplites. (Xen. Cyrop. ii. 1. § 31.) The more common name for this servant of the hoplites was aKev6(f>opos.
At Athens the name virypsryS) or the abstract v-rrypeaia, seems to have been applied to a whole class of officers. Aristotle (Polit. vi. 5) divides all public offices into three classes, ap^ai or magistracies, eTrjfteAeicu or administrations, and virypeartat or services. Now all public officers at Athens, in as far as they were the representatives of the people, or the executors of its will, were appointed by the people itself or by the senate ; and with the exception of some subaltern military officers, we never find that one public officer was appointed by another. A public officer, therefore, when he appointed another person to perform the lower or more mechanical parts of his office, could not raise him to the rank of a public officer, but merely engaged him as a servant (wTr^perT/s), and on his own responsibility. These u-TnjpeVar, therefore, were not public officers, properly speaking, but only in as far as they took a part in the functions of such officers. The original and characteristic difference between them and real public officers was, that the former received salaries, while the latter had none. Among the uTr^perat were reckoned the lower classes of scribes [grammateus], heralds, messengers^ the ministers of the Eleven, and others. This class of persons, as might be supposed, did not enjoy any high degree of estimation at Athens (Pollux, vi. 31), and from Aristotle (Polit. iv; 12) it is clear that they were not always Athenian citizens, but sometimes slaves. [L. S.] HYPEROON (vTrepyov}. [DoMus, p. 426,a.] HYPOBOLES GRAPHE (foo^o^ ypa^). Of this action we learn from the Lex Rhet. that it was one of the many institutions calculated to preserve the purity of Attic descent, and preferred against persons suspected of having been supposititious children. If this fact was established at lU*