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On this page: Hyalus – Hybreos Graphe – Hydraleta – Hydraula

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HYBREOS GRAPHE.

conducted by a -x,opoiroi6s (Xen. Agesil. 2. 17), in which some of their national songs (e7n%wpja TroiTjjUara) were sung. During the songs of these choruses dancers performed some of the ancient and simple movements with the accompaniment of the flute and the song. The Spartan and Amy- el aean maidens, after this, riding in chariots made of wicker-work (itdvaQpa), and splendidly adorned, performed a beautiful procession. Numerous sacri­ fices were also offered on this day, and the citizens kept open house for their friends and relations ; and even slaves were allowed to enjoy themselves. (Didymus, ap. Athen. iv. p. 139.) One of the fa­ vourite meals on this occasion was called kottis, and is described by Molpis (ap. Athen. iv. p. 140) as consisting of cake, bread, meat, raw herbs, broth, rigs, dessert, and the seeds of lupine. Some ancient writers, when speaking, of the Hyacinthia, appty to the whole festival such epithets as can only be used in regard to the second day ; for instance, when they call it a merry or joyful solemnity. Macrobius (Saturn, i. 11) states that the Amyclae- ans wore chaplets of ivy at the Hyacinthia, which can only be true if it be understood of the second day. The incorrectness of these writers is how­ ever in some degree excused by the fact, that the second day formed the principal part of the festive season, as appears from the description of Didy­ mus, and as may also be inferred from Xenophon (Hellen. iv. 5. § 11 ; compare Agesil. 2. 17), who makes the paean the principal part of the Hya­ cinthia. The great importance attached to this festival by the Amyclaeans and Lacedaemonians is seen from the fact, that the Amyclaeans, even when they had taken the field against an enemy, always returned home on the approach of the season of the Hyacinthia, that they might not be obliged to neglect its celebration (Xen. Hellen. iv. 5. § 11 ; Pans. iii. 10. § 1), and that the Lacedae­ monians on one occasion concluded a truce of forty days with the town of Eira, merely to be able to return home and celebrate the national festival (Paus. iv. 19. § 3) ; and that in a treaty with Sparta, b.c. 421, the Athenians, in order to show their good-will towards Sparta, promised every year to attend the celebration of the Hyacinthia. (Thucyd. v. 23.) [L. S.J

HYALUS. [ViTRUM.]

HYBREOS GRAPHE (V€pws ypaQfy. This action was the principal remedy prescribed by the Attic law for wanton and contumelious injury to the person, whether in the nature of indecent (Si1 aia"xpovpyias) or other assaults (Sia TrA^wy), If the offence were of .the former kind, it would al­ways be available when the sufferer was a minor of either sex (for the consent of the infant was immaterial), or when an adult female was forcibly violated: and this protection was extended to all conditions of life, whether bond or free. (Dem. c. Meid.p.529. 15.) The legal representative (/a'-ptos),-however, of such person might, if he pleased, con­sider the injury as a private rather than tt public wrong, and sue for damages in a civil action. [biaion dike.] With respect to common as­saults, a prosecution of this kind seems to have been allowable only when the object of a wanton attack was a free person (Aristot. Rhet. ii. 24), as the essence lay in its contumely, and a slave could incur no degradation by receiving a blow, though the injury, if slight, might entitle the master to recover damages for the battery (cu/a'a), or, if

HYDRAULA.

serious, for the loss of his services [blabes dike]

in a private lawsuit. (Meier, Att. Proc. p. 326.) These two last-mentioned actions might also be re­ sorted to by a free citizen when similarly outraged in his own person, if he were more desirous of ob­ taining compensation for the wrong, than the mere punishment of the wrongdoer, as the penalty in­ curred by the defendant in the public prosecution accrued to the state and not to the plaintiff. A fine also of a thousand drachmae, forfeited by the prosecutor upon his relinquishing his suit or failing to obtain the votes of a fifth of the dicasts, may have contributed to render causes of this kind less frequent, and partly account for the circumstance that there are no speeches extant upon this subject. If, however, the case for the prosecution was both strong and clear, the redress afforded by the public aetion was prompt and efficient. Besides the legi­ timate protectors of women and children, any Athenian citizen in the enjoyment of his full fran­ chise might volunteer an accusation: the declar­ ation was laid before the thesmothetae, who, ex­ cept it were hindered by extraordinary public busi­ ness, were bound not to defer the trial before the Heliaea beyond a month. The severity of the sentence extended to confiscation or death ; and if the latter were awarded, the criminal was executed on the same day : if a fine were imposed upon him he was allowed but eleven days for its payment, and, if the object of his assault were a free person, he was imprisoned till the claim of the state was liquidated. (Dem. I. c. ; Aeschin. c. Timarcli. p. 41.) [J. S. M.]

HYDRALETA. [mola.]

HYDRAULA (uSpauATjs), an organist. Ac­cording to an author quoted by Athenaeus (iv. 75 ; compare Plin. H. N. vii. 38), the first organist was Ctesibius of Alexandria, who lived about b. c. 200. He evidently took the idea of his organ from the syrinx or Pandean pipes, a musical instrument of the highest antiquity among the Greeks. His object being to employ a row of pipes of great size, and capable of emitting the most powerful as well as the softest sounds, he con­trived the means of adapting keys with levers (aiyKwviffKot)) and with perforated sliders (TrcSyuara), to open and shut the mouths of the pipes (yXwa'cro-KOjita), a1 supply of wind being obtained, without intermission, by bellows, in which the pressure of Avater performed the same part which is fulfilled in the modern organ by a weight. On this account the instrument invented by Ctesibius was called the water-organ (u'5/rauAis, Athen. I. c. ; vSpavXi-itbv bpyavoV) Hero, Spirit.; hydraulica machine^ Vitruv. x. 13 ; Schneider, ad loo.; Drieberg, die pneum. Erfindungen der Griechen, pp. 53—61 ; hydraulus, Plin. H. N. ix. 8 ; Cic. Tusc. iii. 18). Its pipes were partly of bronze (%aA/c6t^ apovpa, Jul. Imp. in Brunck's Anal. ii. 403 ; seges a'ena, Claud, de Mall. Theod. Cons. 316), and partly of reed. The number of its stops, and consequently of its rows of pipes, varied from one to eight (Vitruv. /. c.), so that Tertullian (de Anima, 14) describes it with reason as an exceedingly complicated in­strument. It continued in use so late as the ninth century of our era: in the year 826, a water-organ was erected by a Venetian in the church of Aquis-granum, the modern Aix-la-Chapelle. (Quix, Munster-ldrche in Aachen, p. 14.)

The organ was well adapted to gratify the Ro­man people in the splendid entertainments provided

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