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rs in Greece, either hospitium privatura, or publicum, Private hospitality with the Romans, however, seems to have been more accurately and legally defined than in Greece. The character of a hospes, i. e. a person connected with a Roman by ties of hospitality, was deemed even more sacred, and to have greater claims upon the host, than that of a person connected by blood or affinity. The relation of a hospes to his Roman friend was next in im­portance to that of a cliens. (Gellius, v. IB.) Ac­cording to Massurius Sabinus (ap. Gellium^ I. <?.\ a hospes had even higher claims than a cliens. The obligations which the connection of hospitality with a foreigner imposed upon a Roman were to receive in his house his hospes when travelling (Liv. xlii. 1), and to protect, and, in case of need, to repre­sent him as his patron in the courts of justice. (Cic. in Q. Caecil. Divin. c. 20.) Private hospi­tality thus gave to the hospes the claims upon his host which the client had on his patron, but with­out any degree of the dependence implied in the clientela. Private hospitality was established be­tween individuals by mutual presents, or by the mediation of a third person (Serv. ad Aen. ix. 360), and hallowed by religion ; for Jupiter hospi-talis was thought to watch over the jus hospitii, as Zeus xenios did with the Greeks (Cic. c. Verr. iv. 22, ad Quint, frat. ii. 12, pro Deiotar. 6), and the violation of it was as great a crime and impiety at Rome as in Greece. When hospitality was formed, the two friends used to divide between themselves a tessera hospitalis (Plaut. Poen. v. 2.87, &c.), by which, afterwards, they themselves or their descendants—for the connection was hereditary as in Greece — might recognise one another. From an expression in Plautus (deum kospitalem ac tesse-ram mecum fero, Poen. v. 1. 25) it has been con­cluded that this tessera bore the image of Jupiter hospitalis. Hospitality, when thus once established, could not be dissolved except by a formal decla­ration (renuntiatio, Liv. xxv. 18 ; Cie. in Verr. ii. 36), and in this case the tessera hospitalis was broken to pieces. (Plaut. Cistell. ii. 1. 27.) Hos­pitality was at Rome never exercised in that in­discriminate manner as in the heroic age of Greece, but the custom of observing the laws of hospitality was probably common to all the nations of Italy. (A.elian. V. H. iv. 1 ; Liv. i. 1.) In many cases it was exercised without any formal agreement be­tween the parties, and it was deemed an honour­able duty to receive distinguished guests into the house. (Cic. de Off. ii. 18, pro Rose. Am. G.)

Public hospitality seems likewise to have ex­isted at a very early period among the nations of Italy, and the foedus hospitii mentioned in Livy (i. 9) can scarcely be looked Upon in any other light than that of hospitium publicum. But the first direct mention of public hospitality being esta­blished between Rome and another city, is after the Gauls had departed from Rome, when it was decreed that Caere should be rewarded for its good services by the establishment of public hospitality between the two cities. (Liv.. v. 50.) The public hospitality after the war with the Gauls gave to . the Caerites the right of isopolity with Rome, that is, the civitas without the sunragium and the ho-nores. [CiviTAS ; colonia.] In the later times of the republic we no longer find public hospitality es­tablished between Rome and a foreign state ; but a relation which amounted to the same thing was introduced in its stead, that is, towns were raised



to the rank of municipia (Liv. viii. 14), and thus obtained the civitas without the suffragiimi and the honores ; and when a town was desirous of form­ ing a similar relation with Rome, it entered into clientela to some distinguished Roman, who then acted as patron of the client-town. But the custom of granting the honour of hospes publicus to a dis­ tinguished foreigner by a decree of the senate, seems to have existed down to the end of the re­ public. (Liv. i- 45, v. 28, xxxvii. 54.) Whether such a public hospes undertook the same duties to­ wards Roman citizens, as the Greek proxenus, is uncertain ; but his privileges were the same as those of a municeps, that is, he had the civitas, but not the guffragium nor the honores. Public hos­ pitality was, like the hospitium privatum, hereditary in the family of the person to whom it had been granted. (Diod. Sic. xiv. 93.) The honour of public hospes was sometimes also conferred upon a distinguished Roman by a foreign state. (Bb'ckh, Corp. Inscrip. vol. i. n. 1331 ; Cic.proBalb. 18, c. Verr. iv. 65. Compare Niebuhr, Hist, of Rome, vol. ii. p. 58; Walter, Gesch. des Rom. Redds, p. 54, &c. ; Gottling, Gesch. der Rom. Staatsv. p. 216, &c.) [L. S.]

HOSTIA. [sacrifjcium.]

HOSTIS. [hospitium ; postliminium.]

HYACINTHIA ('Ta/aV0ia), a great national festival, celebrated every year at Amyclae by the Amyclaeans and Spartans. The ancient writers who mention this festival do not agree in the name of the divinity in whose honour it was held: some say that it was the Amyelaean or the Car- neian Apollo, others that it was the Amyelaean hero, Hyaeinthus: a third and more probable statement assigns the festival to the Amyelaean Apollo and Hyaeinthus together. This Amyelaean Apollo, however, with whom Hyaeinthus was assimilated in later timeSj must not be confounded with Apollo, the national divinity of the Dorians. (Mttller, Orchom. p. 327, Dor. ii. 8. § 15.) The festival was called after the youthful hero Hyaein­ thus, who evidently derived his name from the flower hyacinth (the emblem of death among the ancient Greeks), and whom Apollo accidentally struck dead with a quoit. The Hyacinthia lasted for three days, and began on the longest day of the Spartan month Hecatombeus (the Attic Heca- tombaeon, Hesych. s. v. 'E/caro/xgeus : Manso, Sparta, iii. 2. p. 201), at the time when the tender flowers oppressed by the heat of the sun, drooped their languid heads. On the first and last day of the Hyacinthia sacrifices were offered to the dead, and the death of Hyaeinthus was lamented. During these two days nobody wore any garlands at the repasts, nor took bread, but only cakes and similar things, and no paeans were sung in praise of Apollo ; and when the solemn repasts were over, every body went home in the greatest quiet and order. This serious and melancholy character Avas foreign to all the other festivals of Apollo. The second day, however, was wholly spent in public rejoicings and amusements Amyclae was visited by numbers of strangers (iravhyvpis a£ioXoyos Kal jUe-vaA?}), and boys played the cithara or sang to the accompaniment of the flute, and celebrated in anapaestic metres the'praise of Apollo, while others, in splendid attire,- performed a horse-race in the theatre. This horse-race is probably the c.y&v mentioned by Strabo (vi. p. 278). After this race there followed a number of choruses of youths

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