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Bpot till a very late period, and it would seem that the place was called ad Solarium, so that Cicero uses this expression as synonymous with Rostra or Forum (pro Quinct. 18, ad Herenn. iv. 10). Horologia of various descriptions seem also to have been commonly kept by private individuals (Cic. ad Fam. xvi. 18) ; and at the time of the emperors, the wealthy Romans used to keep slaves whose special duty it was to announce the hours of the day to their masters. (Juven. x. 215; Mart. viii. 67 ; Petron. 26.)
From the number of solaria which have been discovered in modern times in Italy, we must infer that they were very generally used among the ancients. The following woodcut represents one of the simplest horologia which have been discovered ; it seems to bear great similarity to that, the invention of which Vitruvius ascribes to Berosus. It was discovered in 1741, on the hill of Tusculum, among the ruins of an ancient villa, and is described by Gio. Luca Zuzzeri, in a work entitled D"1 una antica villa scoperta sul dosso del Tusculo, e (Pun antico orologio a sole, Venezia,
1746, and by G. H. Martini, in his Abhandlung van den Sonnenuliren der Alien, Leipzig, 1777, p. 49, &c.
The following woodcut shows the same solarium as restored by Zuzzeri.
The breadth as well as the height (A 0, and P A) are somewhat more than eight inches; and the length (A B) a little more than sixteen inches. The surface (A 0 R B) is horizontal. S P Q T is the basis of the solarium, which, originally, was probably erected upon a pillar. Its side, A S T B, inclines somewhat towards the basis. This inclination was called eytcXi^a, or inclinatio solarii and encliraa sucdsum (Vitruv. /. n.). and
shows the latitude or polar altitude of the plnce for which the solarium was made. The angle of the enclima is about 40° 43', which coincides with the latitude of Tusculum. In the body of the solarium is the almost spherical excavation, H K D M I F N, which forms a double hemicyclium (hemicydium excavatum ex quadrato, Vitruv.). Within this excavation the eleven hour-lines are marked which pass through three semicircles, H L N, K E F, and D M J. The middle one, K E F, represents the equator, the two others the tropic lines of winter and summer. The curve representing the summer tropic is somewhat more than a semicircle, the other two curves somewhat smaller. The ten middle parts or hours in each of the three curves are all equal to one another ; but the two extreme ones, though equal to each other, are by one-fourth smaller than the rest. In the-middle, G, of the curve D K H N I J, there is a little square hole, in which the gnomon or pointer must have been fixed, and a trace of it is still visible in the lead by means of which it was fixed. It must have stood in a perpendicular position upon the surface A B R Q, and at a certain distance from the surface it must have turned in a right angle above the spheric excavation, so that its end (C) extended as far as the middle of the equator, as it is restored in the above woodcut. See the description of another solarium in G. H. Martini's Aiitiquorum Monimentorum Sylloge, p. 95, &c.
Clepsydrae were used by the Romans in their camps, chiefly for the purpose of measuring accurately the four vigiliae into which the night was divided. (Caes. de Bell. Gall. v. 13 ; Veget. de Re Milit. iii. 8 ; Aen. Tact. c. 22.)
The custom of using clepsydrae as a check upon the speakers in the courts of justice at Rome was introduced by a law of Cn. Pompeius, in his third consulship. (Tacit. Dedar. Orat. 38.) Before that time the speakers had been under no restrictions, but spoke as long as they deemed proper. At Rome, as at Athens, the time allowed to the speakers depended upon the importance of the case. Pliny (Epist. ii. 11) states that on one im portant occasion he spoke for nearly five hours, ten large clepsydrae having been granted to him by the judices, but the case was so important that four others were added. (Compare Plin. Epist. vi. 2 ; Martial, vi. 3/5, viii. 7,) Pompeius, in his law, is said to have limited the time during which the accuser was allowed to speak to two hours, while the accused was allowed three hours. (Ascon, in Milon. p. 37, ed. Orelli.) This, however, as is clear from the case of Pliny and others, was not observed on all occasions, and we must suppose that it was merely the intention of Pompeius to fix the proportions of the time to be allowed to each party, that is, that in all cases the accuser should only have two-thirds of the time allowed to tho accused. This supposition is supported by a case mentioned by Pliny (Epist. iv. 9), where, accord ing to law (e lege) the accuser had six hours, while the accused had nine. An especial officer was at Rome as well as at Athens appointed to stop the clepsydra during the time when docu ments were read. (Apul. Apolog. i. and ii. ; com pare Ernesti, de Solariis, in his Opuscul. Pldlolog. et Orii. pp. 21—31 ; Becker, Gallus, vol. i. p. 186, &c.) [L. S.]
HOROSCOPUS. [AsTROLcwiA, p. 144,b.]