The Ancient Library

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made to drop upon wheels which were thereby turned. The regular movement of these wheels was communicated to a small statue, which, gra­dually rising, pointed with a little stick to the hours marked on a pillar which was attached to the mechanism. It indicated the hours regularly throughout the year, but still required to be often attended to and regulated. This complicated clep­sydra seems never to have come into general use, and was probably only found in the houses of very Wealthy persons. The sun-dial or gnomon, and a simpler kind of clepsydra, on the other hand, were much used down to a very late period. The twelve parts of the day were not designated by the name &pa. until the time of the Alexandrian astrono­mers, and even then the old and vague divisions, described in the article dies, were preferred in the affairs of common life. At the time of the geo­grapher Hipparchus, however (about 150 b. c.), it seems to have been very common to reckon by hours. (Comp. Becker, Gharikles, vol. ii. p. 490, &c.) There is still existing, though in ruins, a horo-


logical building, which is one of the most interest-, ing monuments at Athens. It is the structure formerly called the Tower of the Winds, but now known as the Horological Monument of Andronicus Cyrrliestes (see Diet, of Biog. s. v.). It is ex­pressly called horologium by Varro (/?. R. iii. 5. § 17). This building is fully described by Vitru-vius (i. 6. § 4), and the preceding woodcuts show its elevation and ground plan, as restored by Stuart. (Antiq. of Athens, vol. i. c. 3.)

The structure is octagonal ; with its faces to the points of the compass. On the N.E. and N.W. sides are distyle Corinthian porticoes, giving access to the interior ; and to the south wall is affixed a sort of turret, forming three quarters of a circle, to contain the cistern which supplied water to the clepsydra in the interior. On the summit of the building was a bronze figure of a Triton, holding a wand in his hand ; and this figure turned on a pivot, so that the wand always pointed above that side of the building which faced the wind then blowing. The directions of the several faces were indicated by figures of the eight winds on the frieze of the entablature. On the plain wall below the entablature of each face, lines are still visible, which, with the gnomons that stood out above them, formed a series of sun-dials. In the centre of the interior of the building was a clepsydra, the remains of which are still visible, and are shown on the plan, where the dark lines represent the channels for the water, which was supplied from the turret on the south, and escaped by the hole in the centre.

The first horologium with which the Romans be­came acquainted was a sun-dial (solarium, or horo-logium sciothericum), and was, according to some writers, brought to Rome by Papirius Cursor twelve years before the war with Pyrrhus, and placed before the temple of Quirinus (Plin. H.N. vii. 60) ; others stated that it was brought to Rome at the time of the first Punic war, by the consul M. Valerius Messala, and erected on a column behind the Rostra. But this solarium being made for a different latitude did not show the time at Rome correctly. Ninety-nine years afterwards, the censor Q. Marcius Philip-pus erected by the side of the old solarium a new one, which was more carefully regulated according to the latitude of Rome. But as sun-dials, however perfect they might be, were useless when the sky was cloudy, P. Scipio Nasica, in his censorship, 15.9 B. c., established a public clepsydra, which in­dicated the hours both of day and night.. This clepsydra was in aftertimes generally called sola­rium. (Plin. H. N. vii. 60 ; Censorin. de Die Nat. c. 23.) The word hora for hour was introduced at Rome at the time when the Romans became ac­quainted with the Greek horologia, and was in this signification well known at the time of Plautus. (Pseudol. v. 2. 10.) After the time of Scipio Nasica several horologia, chiefly solaria, seem to have been erected in various public places at Rome. A magnificent horologium was erected by Augustus in the Campus Martius. It was a gnomon in the shape of an obelisk ; but Pliny (H. N. xxxvi. 10) complains that in the course of time it 'had become incorrect. Another horologium stood in the Circus Flaminius. (Vitruv. ix. 9. 1.) Sometimes solaria were attached to the front-side of temples and basi-licae. (Varro, de Ling. Lat. vi. 4 ; Gruter, Inscript. vi. 6.) The old solarium which had been erected behind the Rostra seems to have existed on that

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